notes4++ - Unit4 Stoichiometry Stoichiometry:.Reaction...

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Unit 4++ – Stoichiometry Stoichiometry: quantitative relationships among particles in chemical reactions.  Reaction  stoichiometry requires a balanced chemical equation.  A mole-to-mole ratio (stoichiometric  ratio or S/R) is used to convert from one substance to another in a balanced chemical  equation.   The ratio comes from the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. Gravimetric analysis: using mass relationships to solve problems Volumetric analysis: using volume relationships to solve problems Solving stoichiometry problems: Mole-mole problems Step 1:Balance the chemical equation Step 2:Find moles of given Step 3:Use S/R to find moles unknown Example: Magnesium burns in oxygen to produce magnesium oxide.  How many  moles of oxygen are needed to burn 0.52 mol magnesium? 2Mg(s) + O 2 (g)   2MgO(s) 0.52 mol Mg 1 mol O 2 =        mol O 2 2 mol Mg Example: How many moles of aluminum nitrate will be produced when 0.75 mol  silver nitrate reacts with aluminum? 3AgNO 3 (aq) + Al(s)   Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + 3Ag(s) 0.75 mol AgNO 3 1 mol Al(NO 3 ) 3 =        mol Al(NO 3 ) 3 3 mol AgNO 3 Mass-mass problems Step 1:Balance the chemical equation Step 2:Find moles of given Step 3:Use S/R to find moles unknown Step 4:Find grams of unknown Example: Laughing gas, N 2 O, is produced by the decomposition of ammonium  nitrate.  How much ammonium nitrate is required to produce 33.0g laughing  gas? Chip Shea 1 11/5/2011
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NH 4 NO 3 (s)   N 2 O(g) + 2H 2 O(l) Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 =          g    NH 4 NO 3 33.0g N 2 O 1 mol N 2 O 1 mol NH 4 NO 3 80.0g 44.0g N 2 O 1 mol N 2 O 1 mol NH 4 NO 3 Chip Shea 2 11/5/2011
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Example: How many grams of water are produced from the same reaction? NH 4 NO 3 (s)   N 2 O(g) + 2H 2 O(l) Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 33.0g N 2 O 1 mol N 2 O 2 mol H 2 O 18.0g =        g H 2 O 44.0g N 2 O 1 mol N 2 O 1 mol H 2 O Mass-volume problems Step 1:Balance the chemical equation Step 2:Find moles of given Step 3:Use S/R to find moles unknown Step 4:Find liters of unknown Example: At STP, zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas.  How  much gas will 6.5g of zinc produce?
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Graham during the Spring '08 term at N. Colorado.

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notes4++ - Unit4 Stoichiometry Stoichiometry:.Reaction...

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