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Unformatted text preview: Unit 9 Acids and Bases An Acid is an aqueous solution of a hydrogen compound. HCl H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 3 H 2 S hydrochloric acid sulfuric acid sulfurous acid hydrosulfuric acid Rules for Naming Acids Acids are aqueous solutions of hydrogen compounds Binary Acids (H A X B ) Are always named as HYDRO+(root of anion)+IC ACID HCl H 2 S hydrochloric acid hydrosulfuric acid hydroiodic acid hydrosulfuric acid H + I 1- H + S 2- HI H 2 S Ternary Acids (H A XY B ) Are always named after the polyatomic anion. If the polyatomic anions name ends in -ate, then the acids name ends in -ic. If the polyatomic anions name ends in -ite, then the acids name ends in -ous. H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 3 SO 4 2- sulfate SO 3 2- sulfite sulfuric acid sulfurous acid nitric acid nitrous acid H + NO 3 1- H + NO 2 1- HNO 3 HNO 2 Common Acids Name Formula Common Name Properties/Uses sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 battery acid most commonly produced industrial chemical in the world nitric acid HNO 3 volatile, unstable liquid; used in explosives; turns proteins yellow phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4 used in fertilizers, animal feed, soda, detergents hydrochloric acid HCl muriatic acid, stomach acid used in steel making, food processing; as an industrial intermediate acetic acid HC 2 H 3 O 2 or CH 3 COOH vinegar food industry; fungicide; plastics Many bases contain the polyatomic ion hydroxide (OH-). NaOH Ca(OH) 2 Cu(OH) 2 NH 4 OH sodium hydroxide calcium hydroxide copper (II) hydroxide ammonium hydroxide Common Bases Name Formula Common Name Properties/Uses sodium hydroxide NaOH lye, caustic soda drain cleaner, oven cleaner, soap making Chip Shea 1 11/5/2011 potassium hydroxide KOH caustic potash liquid soaps, catalysts magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH) 2 antacids calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 slaked lime drying agent ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH ammonia water cleaning products Properties of Acids and Bases Acid Properties Molecular compounds Ionize in water to form hydronium ion (H 3 O+) React with active metals to form H 2 (g) Change color of indicators Turns blue litmus paper red Neutralize bases Taste sour Corrosive to tissue Electrolytes Base Properties Dissociate in water to form hydroxide ion (OH-) Weak bases ionize in water to form hydroxide ion (OH-) Change color of indicators Turns red litmus paper blue Neutralize acids Taste bitter Feels slippery Electrolytes Acids and bases are electrolytes because they produce ions in solution which can conduct electricity.Acids and bases are electrolytes because they produce ions in solution which can conduct electricity....
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This note was uploaded on 11/05/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Graham during the Spring '08 term at N. Colorado.
- Spring '08