chem_430_skeleton1_Notes - Chem_130_2004_Introduction to...

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Chem_130_2004_Introduction to biological chemistry, Hogan, B.P. Chapter 1: Life I. Introduction to Biological Chemistry A. Biochemistry literally means the study of the chemistry of life 1. Life on earth began ~ 3.5 billion years ago 2. early origins laid basis for all biochemical processes 3. “Chemical unity underlies biological diversity” – Dr. Marlene Kayne B. Life expresses itself through biomolecules 1. a.k.a. biological macromolecues example: “inert monomer” “active polymer” life II. Types of biomolecules—many are polymers of repeating subunits C. Proteins : polymers of amino acids (A.A.) D. Nucleic Acids (N.A.s) : heterocyclic nitrogenous bases on a sugar phosphate backbone E. Lipids : repeating –(CH 2 )- hydrocarbon units 1. Energy storage 2. Membranes F. Carbohydrates: Repeating sugar units 1. Short term energy 2. Examples: G. Small molecules and ions: there are several biologically important small molecules (vitamins, for example) and ions. a. coenzymes (NAD + , FAD) b. Na + , K + II. Questions to ask yourself as a biochemist: A. What are the chemical and 3-dimensional structures of biomolecules B. How do biological macromolecules interact with eachother C. How are biomolecules synthesized and degraded D. How does the organization of biomolecules influence their activity 1
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VI. Biology obeys the laws of thermodynamics A. Physical forces influence the behavior of biological systems B. Points to review from general chemistry 1. Enthalpy 2. Entropy 3. Gibbs free energy 4. Equilibrium constants 5. Acid/Base chemistry (buffers) C. All biological systems are buffered. 1. If buffering conditions are sub-optimal, then the environmental conditions are sub-optimal for life. 2.
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chem_430_skeleton1_Notes - Chem_130_2004_Introduction to...

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