Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Lactate accumulates in the muscle cells which...

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Lactate accumulates in the muscle cells, which can be further broken down and a little energy can be derived from it. If you are yeast, you can live the life in the presence or absence of oxygen. There is another process called alcohol fermentation . o This the how beer is made. There is a reason why the muscles use homolactic fermentation instead of alcoholic fermentation. Reduced coenzymes need to be reoxidized. The best way to make the most energy is to use aerobic conditions Chapter 8 Lipids and Membranes Lipids are also a source of energy, in addition to being part of lipid bilayers. - Marginally soluble in water, but readily soluble in organic solvent 1) Structure of Lipids a) Derivatives of Fatty Acids (F.A.s) Most lipids are derivatives of fatty acids. - A fatty acid is a molecule that has a very hydrophobic (hydrocarbon chain) and hydrophilic (carboxylic acid function) region. It is amphipathic - In the range of 4 24 carbons in length - Because of their general structure, they want to minimize their hydrophobic tail away from water. This is the driving force in membrane formation - Most fatty acids have an even number of carbons. o It is hard to get odd numbered fatty acids to get converted to coenzyme A b) Fatty acids are hydrophobic; therefore, they want to minimize contact between their aliphatic tail and water 2) Broad classes of Fatty acids
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a) Saturated: Have no C=C and are highly flexible b) Unsaturated: One or more C=C that are usually isolated from one another not conjugated. i) Because of the C=C, fatty acids can be cis or trans. (1) Cis : Most of them are in the cis configuration. This configuration causes them to have about a 30 degree bend in the hydrocarbon tail. (2) Trans: Fatty acids that are in the trans configuration have a shape similar to a saturated fatty acid. ii) Unsaturated fatty acids have kinks in their hydrocarbon tails and cannot pack as tightly as saturated fatty acids. c) Free F.A.s are not found in cells because of the solubility problems. Therefore, they have to be attached to something else to overcome these difficulties. i)
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course BIOL 430 taught by Professor Lspremulli during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Chapter 8 - Lactate accumulates in the muscle cells which...

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