Chapter 16

Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates...

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Chapter 16 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Definition: Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones 1. General formula (CH 2 O) eg. Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 2. In reality this simple formula only fits simple sugars and monosaccharides exactly. Othey types of carbohydrates, oligosaccharides and polysaccharies, have slightly different formulas Three major classes of carbohydrates Monosaccharides Simple sugar units o Example: glucose Oligosaccharides 2 or more monosaccharides that are covalently linked Most abundant type is the disaccharides Play a key role in processes that take place on the surface of the cell o Example: Sucrose (table sugar), which is composed of glucose and fructose Polysaccharides Many monosaccharides that are covalently linked. The reaction that adds a monosaccharide to a growing carbohydrate chain results in the loss of water, which accounts for the difference in the chemical formula. Serve as structural components for several classes of organisms o Examples: Glycogen = [glucose] 55,000 Main storage form of glucose in the body. It is a branched polysaccharide. About 7% of the liver is composed of glycogen. Cellulose = [glucose] 25,000 - Major component of grass and trees Monosaccharides in more detail:
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Monosaccharides serve as the building blocks of all carbohydrates Two broad families of monosaccharides 1. Aldoses: contains an aldehyde functional group
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course BIOL 430 taught by Professor Lspremulli during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates...

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