Urinary System

Urinary System - THE URINARY SYSTEM ASSIGNED READING: PAGES...

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THE URINARY SYSTEM ASSIGNED READING: PAGES 906-908; 911-935 IN SALADIN 5TH EDITION
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KIDNEY FUNCTIONS Regulate blood volume Secrete renin, regulating pressure Regulate osmolarity of the body fluids Stimulate RBC production (via EPO) Regulate acid-base balance
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NITROGENOUS WASTES Ammonia from protein catabolism very toxic Urea formation Ammonia converted to urea in liver Uric acid product of nucleic acid catabolism Creatinine product of creatine phosphate catabolism Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) – expression of the level of nitrogenous waste in the blood H H H N O NH 2 CH 2 CH 3 C O O O HN H C C C C N O H H C N N C C N Creatinine Uric acid Urea Ammonia H 2 N NH HN
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EXCRETION Excretion – removal of wastes from body fluids four body systems carry out excretion 1. respiratory system CO 2 , small amounts of other gases, and water 1. integumentary system water, inorganic salts, lactic acid, urea in sweat 1. digestive system water, salts, CO 2 , lipids, bile pigments, cholesterol, other metabolic waste, and food residue (fiber) 1. urinary system many metabolic wastes, toxins, drugs, hormones, salts, H+ and water
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THE NEPHRON ephron : the functional unit of the kidney; consists of a tubule and associated vasculature as 2 capillary beds in series: Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent arteiole Peritubular capillaries (vasa recta) Venule Arcuate vein Arcuate artery Vasa recta Nephron loop Collecting duct Cortical nephron Juxtamedullary nephron Glomerulus Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Interlobular artery Interlobular vein Peritubular capillaries Corticomedullary junction PCT DCT M e d u l l a C o r t e x
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THE NEPHRON Renal corpuscle : •Glomerulus •Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule Renal tubule: •Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) •Nephron loop (Loop of Henle) Descending limb Ascending limb •Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) •Collecting duct Renal capsule Collecting duct Nephron Glomerulus Glomerular capsule Renal corpuscle: Nephron loop: Descending limb Ascending limb Flow of tubular fluid Flow of blood Key Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal papilla Minor calyx Efferent arteriole Afferent arteriole Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Collecting duct (CD)
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BASIC STEPS IN URINE FORMATION Glomerular filtration Creates a plasmalike filtrate of the blood Tubular reabsorption Removes useful solutes from the filtrate, returns them to the blood Tubular secretion Removes additional wastes from the blood, adds them to the filtrate water conservation Removes water from the urine and returns it to blood; cincentrates wastes Rental Corpuscle Flow of filtrate Peritubular Capillaries Rental tubule H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O Urine Blood flow 1 2 3 and
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RENAL CORPUSCLE: ANATOMY Flow of filtrate Flow of blood Key Afferent arteriole Blood flow Efferent arteriole Blood flow Glomerular capillaries (podocytes and capillary wall removed) Proximal convoluted tubule
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course BIOL 252 taught by Professor Johnson during the Fall '07 term at UNC.

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Urinary System - THE URINARY SYSTEM ASSIGNED READING: PAGES...

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