Student Outline III_spring 2010

Student Outline III_spring 2010 - Stem Cells I. General...

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Stem Cells I. General stem cell information A. All stem cells have two basic characteristics: 1. Self-renewal (mitosis) – to maintain a pool of cells like themselves 2. Differentiation – into specialized cells B. Some stem cells seem to have more abilities, or possibilities, than other stem cells, termed the ___potency__ of the stem cell. A stem cell that is unipotent can form only one differentiated cell type. A multipotent stem cell can form multiple different cells and tissue types. A _pluripotent_ stem cell can form most or all of the 220 differentiated cell types in the adult body. A __totipotent_ stem cell can form not only all adult body cell types, but also the specialized tissues needed for development of the embryo, such as the placenta. Totipotent – pluripotent – multipotent/unipotent II. Development in multi-cellular eukaryotes… so what makes a red blood cell different from a muscle cell? A. Differentiation – becoming specialized B. All cells in our body contain the same: DNA 1
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III. Embryonic stem (ES) cells A. Source of embryonic stem cells: the blastocyst ~day 5 of development, 150 cells -trophoblast (outer cells) ~becoming the placenta (in vivo) -Inner cell mass ~ baby (in vivo), ~in vitro – embryonic stem cells, ES B. Description of ES cells – -pluripotent -undifferentiated - grow and divide indefinitely - if injected directly into animal ~ tumors - can acquire genetic abnormalities (mutations, chromosome abnormalities) C. Is it legal to develop new ES cell lines? Can’t use federal money to create new lines (private), but can use federal money to work with lines derived from any date. D. What are the possible hopes/uses for ES cells? Basic science, pharmaceutical testing, regenerative medicine IV. An alternate source for embryonic-like stem cells? w/o ethical dilemma (pluripotent) A. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells- first made in humans in 2009 Differentiated cells ~ retrovirus injects 4 transcription factors ~ induced pluripotent cells (ips) ~ Ex. Skin cells OCT 4 SOX 2 differentiate for regenerative medicine NANOG LIN 28 B. Current research- 2
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C. Potential advantage of iPS cells in personalized regenerative medicine? Less ethical dilemma, genetic/immune match (donor = recipient), animal studies show promise D. Potential disadvantage of using iPS cells in medicine? Dangers of retroviral transfer + OCT-4, cancer, takes time to grow tissue, expensive E. Can ES cells be personalized like iPS cells? Directed differentiation reproductive cloning (Dolly sheep) Diploid zygote Divides 5 days blastecyst Egg ES cells Implant in female Baby (unique Enucleated egg Diploid egg – somatic cell nuclear transfer) Divides 5 days blastecyst Implant in female Baby ES cells Therapeutic or research cloning (in vitro) 3
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V. What are adult stem cells (sometimes known as a somatic stem cell)? A.
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2011 for the course BIOL 202 taught by Professor Kieber-hogan during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Student Outline III_spring 2010 - Stem Cells I. General...

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