Test 3 SI Review

Test 3 SI Review - Test 3 SI Review Tuesday, March 31, 2009...

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Test 3 SI Review Tuesday, March 31, 2009 9:41 AM 1. Transcription/Translation o Be familiar with process and different molecules o How affected by gene translation o How relate to gene transcription 2. Control of Gene expression o All cells have same genome o Selective Gene expression Cell differentiation The way that we have differences between eye cells, liver cells, etc. Which cells expressed and which are not o Turning Genes on and off Communications from outside affecting genes on outside or inner environment of cell Cell receptor on outside, enzyme on inside activated, gives signal cascade in nucleus, activates or de activates genes. Signal Transduction Changing form from electrical to chemical etc. Signal may be amplified when reaches nucleus or nucloid region in prokaryotes Signal Cascades Enzyme passed down pathway, signal transduction happens on cascade pathways Hormones, molecule travels through plasma membrane, travels to nucleus. Direct involvement o Prokaryotic Adjust transcription rates, in response to environmental changes Lac Operon. Series of regulatory genes and associated genes that follow with transcription factors. Enzymes used in breakdown of lactose. Gene expression differs based on whether lactose is present or not If no lactose is present, repressor binds. Promoter sequence not available. Lactose present, promoter sequence exposed, RNA polymerase can bind to promoter sequence, genes are transcribed in presence of lactose. If lactose isn't present, no reason for genes to be transcribed, cell regulates their production with transcription factor. Repressor bound by lactose. Response to environment. o Eukaryotic Cells Gene controls at every level. PAGE 210 Post Transcriptional Modification Before m-RNA can leave nucleus
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Primary RNA transcript to mature mRNA Poly-A tail added Keeps mRNA from being degraded. Protective mechanism Specific cap added that allows to be recognized by ribosomes in cytoplasm Exon/intron splicing DNA has a lot of none coding regions. Never used in protein synthesis. Entrons.
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Test 3 SI Review - Test 3 SI Review Tuesday, March 31, 2009...

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