Biol 446 Final Exam Study Guide

Biol 446 Final Exam Study Guide - Exam is Wed. December...

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Exam is Wed. December 16 th at 8:00 AM What sort of questions will be on the final exam? Exam is open notes…bring research papers and handouts… First, READ POPPER AND KUHN again Read the handouts… Popper: what makes things scientific is having things that can be disproved. Marxism or Freudian ideas aren’t something scientific because you can’t ever have a symptom that would disprove something. Popper was saying Marxism is not like a science because you can’t bring in any facts to disprove the theories. You can’t make a money bet that history has been misleading and a war will break out if some non-marxist event occurs. -Popper was also prescribing to scientific researches “what is a good theory” one that makes predictions and tells you “This has to happen, or i’m wrong…this doesn’t happen, well then I’m wrong” -What hypothetical experiment would cause you to give up on foam cells? Something that can disprove they’re important in atherosclerosis Kuhn : Was not really saying what scientists ought to do. He was recognizing what scientists TEND to do. He is saying scientists contrary to “baconian” methods don’t follow normal procedure. People have a set of beliefs about a phenomenon and they will try and do experiments just to confirm their own hunches. Any findings usually go towards making people more stubborn if it supports their theory. People try to confirm what they already believe and science moves along. “Non” revolutionary science is just finding more details about principles people already believe in and want to believe in. -The real revolutions come from a paradigm shift: the contrary evidence becomes too strong and someone comes up with an alternative hypothesis that fits better. -eventually, things will have to be overhauled because everyone was wrong…this is an example of “revolutionary science” there is a dismantling of prior beliefs and accepted theory to accommodate the new accepted theory. PARADIGM SHIFTS. -Kuhn says that research goes along in a straight line for a while, but then periodically something is discovered that really upsets the dogma. Someone challenges the dogma and turns out to be right. -Kuhn says that textbooks systematically cover up the erroneous beliefs of the past. They basically just say that people once believed something else, and then they believed another thing, but now believe “this”. So they just overlook all of the details of the paradigm shifts. (Make the history of science seem linear) Things on exam: -Examples of research (that you have heard about in lectures, or student reports, or your own papers) that resemble what Kuhn says, or that are contrary and/or that are like what Popper said -you will be asked for 3 examples of this. -I think Kuhn is wrong…here are three cases where he is flat wrong… (or right!)
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Biol 446 Final Exam Study Guide - Exam is Wed. December...

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