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Chap 32,40 An introduction to animal diversity and form and function-st-09-1

Chap 32,40 An introduction to animal diversity and form and function-st-09-1

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An introduction to animal diversity AND animal form and function Eukaryotic Mostly multicellular, heterotrophs Cambrian explosion 1) predator/prey relationship evolution] ->speed & sensory organs evolved -predators locomotion, prey protection 2) increase in oxygen ->metabolism, larger bodies evolved 3) Hox genes [duplication in more complex organisms & regulation of gene expression] -timing, difference in area of expression -regulates patterning of anterior-posterior axis in bilaterians -variations in morphology
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Ancestor of animal clade was probably a colonial flagellated protist Functional specialization (aka division of labor) of cells in colony arose; and cells continued to differentiate All animals are monophyletic choanoflagellate ancestor 1)Ribosomal DNA 2)All lack cell wall [have only cell membrane] 3)Unique cell-cell structures [tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions] 4)2 specialized cells: muscle, nerve 5)Basic function of Hox genes 6)Common extracellular matrix [collagen, proteoglycans] 7)Have similar organ systems 8)Similar organization [cells, tissues, organs, organ systems]
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-Physical constraints on Animal size and shape Interaction with environment [biotic factors like predators] Tube within a tube body plan, lining became extensively folded to increase absorption and gas exchange -the tube within a tube was the answer to problem of a decrease of surface to volume ratio
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Small animals do not use energy efficiently -as animals became more complex, they became larger -anterior and posterior end -need to search for food favored sensory structures to provide detailed information about their environment -Anterior end has many sense organs because it was the first part of the body and structure to interact with the environment -Anterior end also has the brain and central nervous system in it allowing for much quicker reactions
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