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vertebrates-2-st---09 - Tetrapods 2 pairs of appendages...

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Tetrapods 2 pairs of appendages used to walk on land Initially inhabited shallow water Breathed air by gulping All land animals are tetrapods
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Acanthostega Transitional fossil between fish & amphibian
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Anamniotes Do not have a layer [amnion] around the embryo to protect it from drying Amphibians lay eggs in water Larval form in water, tadpole stage Skin dries out, need to return to water [diffusion of gases, mucous]
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Amniotes (includes reptiles, mammals, and birds) The amniotic egg. Aquatic environment needed to develop Animals have a large amount of yolk to provide nutrition to embryo (not as much need if there is placenta)
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Calcium Porous, allows diffusion of gases
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Reptiles first group completely independent of water Scutes/scales prevent water loss Metabolic adaptation-kidneys can excrete uric acid
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Did not have air sacs exaptation
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Evolution of birds Wings, modified scales Bird lungs have air sacs, not present in reptiles Endotherm Flight mechanism
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