ch02 - Chapter 2 Values, Personality, and Individual...

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Chapter 2 Values, Personality, and Individual Differences People are Different
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Chapter 2 Study Questions What are culture and values? What is personality? How do personalities differ? What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity?
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What are culture and values? Culture The learned and shared way of thinking and acting among a group of people or society
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What are culture and values? Cultural intelligence the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations.
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What are culture and values? Values and national culture Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Individualism-collectivism Masculinity-femininity Long-term/short-term orientation.
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What are culture and values? Power distance The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations.
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What are culture and values? Uncertainty avoidance The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations.
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What are culture and values? Individualism-collectivism The cultural tendency to emphasize individual self-interests or group relationships Preferences for working individually or in groups.
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What are culture and values? Masculinity-femininity The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships.
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What are culture and values? Long-term/short-term orientation The tendency of a culture to emphasize future- oriented values versus present-oriented values. Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.
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Figure 2.1
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What are culture and values? Values Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. Values influence behavior and attitudes.
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What are culture and values? Terminal values reflect a person’s preferences concerning the “ends” to be achieved Instrumental values reflect a person’s beliefs about the means for achieving desired ends
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Figure 2.2
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What are culture and values? Gordon Allport’s values categories
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ch02 - Chapter 2 Values, Personality, and Individual...

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