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IMPORTANT CONCEPTS : sociology : scientific study of social organization and social interactions sociological imagination : the ability to see our private experiences, difficulties, and achievements as a reflection of the structural arrangements of society and the times in which we live; our personal experiences and broader social historical events impression management: Goffman called the way we present ourselves to others in ways that will lead them to view us in a favorable light social structure: the interweaving of people’s interactions and relationships in more or less recurrent and stable patterns ideal type: to refer to a concept constructed by sociologists to portray the principal characteristics of a phenomenon; contributed by Max Weber role conflict: when individuals are confronted with conflicting expectations stemming from their simultaneous occupancy of two or more statuses interaction : mutual influence through exchange or communication; inherently ambiguous social fact: aspects of social life that cannot be explained in terms of the biological or mental characteristics of the individual role strain: when individuals find the expectations of a single role incompatible and there is a difficulty in performing that role social relationship: stable, recurrent pattern of interaction culture: learned patterns of thinking, feeling, acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next instrumental tie: social links formed when we cooperate with other people to achieve a specific goal concept: gives form and meaning to experience ex: social class, gender, race, etc norm: social rules that specify appropriate and inappropriate behavior in given situations; usually understood and not written expressive tie: social links formed when we emotionally invest ourselves and commit ourselves to other people variable: concept that can take on different values ex: male/female, etc folkways: customary ways and ordinary conventions by which we carry out daily activities; govern everyday life group: consists of two or more people who are bound together in relatively stable patterns of social interaction and who share a feeling of unity hypothesis: a proposition that can be tested to determine its validity mores : rules reflecting great moral concerns primary group: small group characterized by intimate, informal interaction; expressive ties dominate this group correlation: two variables that vary together; as one changes, so does the other one law: rules that are enforced by a special political organization composed of individuals who have the right to use force secondary group: two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties dominate this group independent variable: the variable that causes an effect in an experiment ethnocentrism: the tendency to judge the behavior of other groups by the standards of one’s own culture in-group: a group in which we identify and to which we belong
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