HW #11 - AP Biology Period 4 Liem Nguyen #22 10/20/09...

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AP Biology Period – 4 Liem Nguyen #22 10/20/09 Homework #11 (091023): Chapter 11 (due Friday 091023 ) Total points: 20 for Attempt on all questions ONE Concept Map: 10 points Objectives An Overview of Cell Signaling 1. Describe the basic signal transduction pathway used for mating in yeast. Explain why we believe these pathways evolved before the first multicellular organisms appeared on Earth. -signal transduction pathway: process, signal on the cell converted to cellular response -pathways studied in yeast -similarities in signal transduction in yeast and mammals, but last common ancestor of the 2 groups lived billions of years ago -before existence of multicellular organisms Basic signal transduction pathway is a process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into specific cellular response in series of steps. Molecular details of signal transduction in yeast and mammals are similar, but their last common ancestor lived billions of years ago, before multicellular organisms existed. 2. Define paracrine signaling and give an example. -paracrine signaling is type of local signaling in animals -numerous cells can receive/respond to molecules of growth factor made by a cell -ex: growth factor of a local regulator Paracrine signaling is a local signaling in animals, where numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to molecules of growth factor produced by one cell. An example is where a secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator (growth factor) into extracellular fluid. 3. Define local regulation and explain why hormones are not local regulators. -local regulator: travels short distances -hormones: used by both animal/plant cells, used for long-distance signaling Local regulation is the process where local regulators influence cells in the vicinity, meaning they travel only short distances. Hormones are not local regulators, because hormones are used for long-distance signaling, which is beyond the vicinity. 4. Explain how plant and animal hormones travel to target cells. -animals: (hormonal signaling) cells release hormone molecules into circulatory system -plants: (growth regulators) travel in vessels, but move through cells more often
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In hormonal (endocrine) signaling in animals, specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of circulatory system, so they travel to target cells in other parts of the body. Plant hormones (growth regulators) travel in vessels but often
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HW #11 - AP Biology Period 4 Liem Nguyen #22 10/20/09...

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