HW #20 - AP Biology Period 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 11/24/09...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 11/24/09 Homework #20 (091204): Chapter 20 (due Friday 0901204 ) Total points: 20 for Attempt on all questions ONE Concept Map: 10 points Objectives DNA Cloning 1. Explain how advances in recombinant DNA technology have helped scientists study the eukaryotic genome. genetic engineering recombinant DNA introduce cultured cells Advances in recombinant DNA help scientists study the eukaryotic genome because it is used for genetic engineering, which produces hundreds of proteins. This also produces recombinant DNA and cultured cells that replicate DNA, expressing its genes. 2. Describe the natural function of restriction enzymes and explain how they are used in recombinant DNA technology. cutting DNA molecules out at specific locations recombinant DNA created through restriction Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA molecules out at a specific location. In this way, it creates recombinant DNA through restriction. 3. Explain how the creation of sticky ends by restriction enzymes is useful in producing a recombinant DNA molecule. restriction fragment: cut area in a DNA molecule stick end: one single-stranded end DNA ligase: enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent bonds When a restriction site is recognized, it is cut, thus producing fragments with sticky ends. These end with a base-pair, which is how recombinant DNA is created. 4. Outline the procedures for cloning a eukaryotic gene in a bacterial plasmid. isolation of plasmid DNA DNA is cut plasmids and DNA are mixed together bacterial cells are mixed in incubation First, plasmid DNA is isolated from the bacterial cells. Then the DNA samples are cut by the restriction enzyme. These two items are then mixed together, and DNA ligase seals it. Then bacterial cells are mixed in, making it unable to hydrolyze lactose. Finally, this is
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incubated to create a colony of bacteria. 5. Describe techniques that allow identification of recombinant cells that have taken up a gene of interest. nucleic acid hybridization: DNA of the gene is detected nucleic acid probe: the complementary molecule denaturation: separation of two strands Nucleic acid hybridization allows DNA to be detected by a nucleic acid probe, its complementary molecule. It is then denatured to separate the two strands. 6. Define and distinguish between genomic libraries using plasmids, phages, and cDNA. genomic library: complete set of plasmid clones complementary DNA: double-stranded DNA modified by the addition of restriction enzyme Genomic libraries are made up of a set of plasmid clones, each of which has a copy from the genome we started with. One is made up of phages, which is a common cloning vector when it comes to genomic libraries. The cDNA that is cloned makes up the rest of the genes.
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HW #20 - AP Biology Period 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 11/24/09...

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