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HW #27 - AP Biology Period 4#22 Liem Nguyen...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 1/9/10 Homework #27 ( 090213 ): Chapter 27 (due Friday 090213 ) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Prokaryotes Objectives Structural, Functional, and Genetic Adaptations Contribute to Prokaryotic Success 1. Explain why it might be said that the history of life on Earth is one long “age of prokaryotes.” wealth of adaptations inhabit diverse environments extreme genetic diversity Prokaryotes were some of the first organisms to evolve, and they have survived to the present day. This is because they contain a wealth of adaptations, allowing them to inhabit diverse environments unfit for most other organisms. Also, their vast genetic diversity allows them to adapt to almost any environment. 2. Explain why prokaryotes are unable to grow in very salty or sugary foods, such as cured meats or jam. cell wall hypertonic environment plasmolysis sever water loss inhibition of reproduction The cell wall of all prokaryotes is very important, as it protects them in different environments. However, in a hypertonic environment, such as in salt or sugar, plasmolysis occurs as the prokaryote loses water and shrinks away from the wall, inhibiting reproduction. 3. State the function(s) of each of the following prokaryotic features: a. capsule b. fimbria c. sex pilus d. nucleoid e. plasmid f. endospore capsule: sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein fimbria: hairlike appendages sex pilus: specialized pili used in conjugation nucleoid: prokaryotic chromosome
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plasmid: small rings of DNA endospore: resistant cells Capsules form the cell wall of many prokaryotes. Fimbria are used to attach to substrate. Sex pilus link prokaryotes in DNA transfers. Nucleoids are a region containing the entire chromosome. Plasmids contain only a few genes with less common functions. Endospores form when essential nutrient is lacking in the environment. 4. Describe how prokaryotes carry out cellular respiration when they lack compartmentalized organelles such as mitochondria. obligate aerobes facultative anaerobes obligate anaerobes anaerobic respiration nitrogen fixation metabolic cooperation Obligate aerobes require oxygen. Facultative anaerobes can use oxygen or carry out fermentation. Obligate anaerobes are poisoned by oxygen. Anaerobic respiration substitutes oxygen with other substances. Nitrogen fixation is used to acquire nitrogen for organic molecules. Cooperation between prokaryotes allows them to use resources otherwise impossible as individual cells. 5. List the three domains of life. three domains: Domain Bacteria includes Alpha, Delta, Cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, etc. Domain Archaea- includes Nanoarchaeotes, Crenarchaeotes Domain Eukarya- includes eukaryotes The first domain is Domain Bacteria, which includes Alpha, Delta, Cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, etc. The second domain is Domain Archaea includes Nanoarchaeotes and Crenarchaeotes. Domain Eukarya includes eukaryotes.
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