AP Biology Period – 4
#22 Liem Nguyen
Homework #29 (090220): Chapter 29 (due Friday 90220)
Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions
Concept Map: 10 Points
Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land
An Overview of Land Plant Evolution
1. Describe four shared derived homologies that link charophyceans and land
rose shaped complexes (synthesize cellulose microfibrils)
peroxisome enzyme (minimize loss of organic products)
flagellated sperm (resembles charophycean)
formation of a phragmoplast
Charophyceans and land plants both have rosette shaped arrays of proteins in
the plasma membrane that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls.
Peroxisome enzymes of both contain enzymes that help minimize the loss of
organic products from photorespiration. Also, in species of land plants that have
flagellated spore, the structure of the sperm resembles charophycean.
2. Distinguish among the kingdoms Plantae, Streptophyta, and Viridiplantae.
Note which of these is used in the textbook.
include green algae (Streptophyta)
chlorophytes (Viridiplante kingdom)
Plantae are associated with embyophyes. Some biologists think that the
boundaries should include green algae, which would be Streptophyta. Also,
others suggest that it should also include chlorophytes in a Viridiplante kingdom.
The one in the book uses the kingdom Plante as the formal name.
3. Describe five characteristics that distinguish land plants from charophycean
algae. Explain how these features are adaptive for life on land.
apical meristems (land plants can’t move to gain nutrients)
alternation of generations (not charophyceans)
walled spores (sporopollenin)
gametangia (fertilized egg)
multicellular embryo (plant tissues provide nutrients)
Five key traits appear in all land plants, but are absent in the charophyceans.
They are apical meristems, alternation of generations, walled spores,
multicellular gametangia and nulticellular embryos. Apical stems derived because
on land plants cannot move to gain nutrients. Because algae, but not
charophyceans have alternation of generations, we know that it was derived on
land. The sporopollenin makes it so that the spores are resistant to harsh
weather and can travel in dry air without harm. Gametangia make it possible for
the egg to be fertilized. Embryos derived because the parental tissues provide it
4. Define and distinguish among the stages of the alternation of generations life
gametophyte (haploid – single set of chromosomes)
sporophyte (spore producing generation)
haploid/diploid (development during meiosis)
The cells of the gametophyte are haploid and have a single set of chromosomes.
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