HW #34 - AP Biology Period 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 2/12/10...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 2/12/10 Homework #34 (090227): Chapter 34 (due Friday 090227) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Chapter 34: Vertebrates Objectives Invertebrate Chordates and the Origin of Vertebrates 1. Distinguish between the phyla of deuterostomes. Chordates: develop notochord, dorsal, pharyngeal slits Craniates: chordates with heads Vertebrates: have backbones Gnathostomes: possess jaws Tetrapods: two pairs of limbs Amniotes: amniotic eggs having membranes protecting the embryo Mammals: amniotes with mammary glands that produce milk Chordates are animals that will develop a notochord, a dorsal, and pharyngeal slits. Craniates are chordates with heads. Vertebrates are animals that contain backbones. Gnathostomes are vertebrates that possess jaws. Tetrapods are animals that have two pairs of limbs. Amniotes are tetrapods that have amniotic eggs containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo. Finally mammals are animals that are amniotes with mammary glands that produce milk. Reptilia are cold blooded are include lizards and such. Amphibians are not amniotes and they include frogs and such. 2. Describe the four derived traits that define the phylum Chordata. Notochord: present in all chordate embryos Dorsal: unique to chordates Pharyngeal slits: allow water entering mouth to exit Muscular tail: in chordates Chordata are named for the notochord present in all chordate embryos. Notochords are longitudinal , flexible rods located between the digestive tube and the nerve chord. It provides skeletal support throughout most of the length of a chordate. Also, A hollow nerve ford, or dorsal is unique to chordates; it forms from plates of ectoderm that rolls into a tube. Also, pharyngeal slits may form; they allow water entering the mouth to exit the body without passing through the entire digestive tract. Also muscular post anal tails are in chordates. 3. Distinguish among the three subphyla of the phylum Chordata and give examples of each.
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Tunicates: deepest branch lineage of chordates Lancelets: develop notochords Craniates: have heads Tunicates belong to the deepest branching lineage of chordates. They most resemble other chordates during larval stages. Lancelets develop notochords a dorsal and hollow nerve chords; they feed on water plankton in the water by swimming up and down. Craniates are chordates with heads; the origin of a head allowed for a brain to develop. 4. Discuss the evidence for and against Garstang’s hypothesis that vertebrates had a tunicate-like ancestor. Tunicates accelerated sexual maturity Chordates that evolved retained notochord known as paedomorphosis Degenerate stage a derived stage He suggested that ancestral tunicate like chordates accelerated the sexual maturity becoming mature while still in their larval stage. Thus they and the chordates that evolved from them retained the notochord and other features as adults. It is known as paedomorphosis. However, in the case of tunicates, the
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This note was uploaded on 11/06/2011 for the course AP BIO 101 taught by Professor Chan during the Fall '05 term at JFK.

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HW #34 - AP Biology Period 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 2/12/10...

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