HW #35 - AP Biology Period 4#22 Liem Nguyen...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 2/12/10 Homework #35 (090303): Chapter 35 (due Friday 090303) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Objectives The Plant Body 1. Describe and compare the three basic organs of vascular plants. Explain how these basic organs are interdependent. Roots, stems, leaves Interdependent upon the other organs Shoot system needs water/minerals that root system absorbs/transfers Organic nutrients imported from photosynthetic tissues The three basic organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves. These three organs are each interdependent upon the other two organs. For example, being in the dark and lacking chloroplasts, roots would starve to death without the sugar and other organic nutrients imported from the photosynthetic tissues of the shoot system. On the other hand, the shoot system and its flowers need the water and minerals that the root system absorbs and transfers from to soil. 2. List the basic functions of roots. Describe and compare the structures and functions of fibrous roots, taproots, root hairs, and adventitious roots. Roots: anchor vascular plants to soil and absorb minerals/water Taproot system: one vertical root produces many small laterals Fibrous roots: wide mat of thin roots Root hairs: smaller roots increase surface area Adventitious roots: rise above the ground The basic functions of roots are to anchor vascular plants to the soil and to absorb minerals and water and to store food. There are four types of root structures. The taproot system consists of one large vertical root that produces many small lateral roots. The fibrous roots are a wide mat of thin roots that have spread out below the soil surface. Root hairs are smaller roots that increase the surface area of the root system greatly to absorb more water. Adventitious roots are roots that rise above the ground from stems or from leaves. 3. Describe the basic structure of plant stems. Stem: organ having alternating nodes Internodes: stem segments between the nodes Axillary bud with potential to form lateral shoot or branch
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A stem is an organ consisting of alternating nodes, the points at which leaves are attached, and internodes, the stem segments between nodes. At the angle formed by each leaf and the stem is an axillary bud with the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch. 4. Explain the phenomenon of apical dominance. Terminal bud responsible for inhibition of growth of axillary buds Also known as apical dominance Grow taller, evolutionary adaptation increasing plant’s exposure Vegetative branch complete with its own The presence of a terminal bud is partly responsible for inhibiting the growth of axillary buds, a phenomenon called apical dominance. By concentrating resources on growing taller, apical dominance is an evolutionary adaptation that increases the plant’s exposure to light. In the absence of a terminal bud, the
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