HW #42 - AP Biology Period 4#22 Liem Nguyen...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 3/14/10 Homework #42 (090327): Chapter 42 (due Friday 090327) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Chapter 42: Circulation and Gas Exchange Objectives Circulation in Animals 1. Describe the need for circulatory and respiratory systems due to increasing animal body size. Animal body size increases, more cells created More cells in the body, spread around Circulatory and respiratory system more efficient Work together to transport nutrients Diffusion is not adequate for transporting substances over long distance in animals; time it takes for substance to diffuse from one place to another is proportional to square of distance. Circulatory system ensures no substance must diffuse far to enter or leave cell. Oxygen is inhaled through air diffuses across epithelium into blood carbon dioxide diffuses in opposite direction in the lungs. Bulk fluid movement carries O2-rish blood to parts of body. 2. Explain how a gastrovascular cavity functions in part as a circulatory system. Body structure is very thin and small Diffusion method of circulation suitable Oxygen and nutrients can diffuse through easily Cnidarians have a body wall of only two cells thick Gastrovascular cavity can serve both in digestion and distribution The body structure is very thin and small in a gastrovascular cavity. The gastrovascular cavity functions in digestion and circulation. The inner cavity gets access to nutrients and distributes them across the whole body and their body plan is set in a way that nutrients only have to diffuse short distances. Gastrovascular cavity can also serve both in digestion and distribution. 3. Distinguish between open and closed circulatory systems. List the three basic components common to both systems. Commonly found in insects, arthropods, and mollusks Mixed in with interstitial fluid, hemolymph Heart contracts the blood is pumped into the sinuses Heart relaxes, blood is absorbed back in through the ostia
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Closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels Blood and the interstitial fluids that bath the cells Earthworm, squid, octopus, and all vertebrates Blood bathes the organs directly in an open circulatory system. In a closed circulatory system, blood is confined to vessels and is distinct from the interstitial fluid. The lower hydrostatic pressures associated with open circulatory systems make them less costly. Lack an extensive system of blood vessels, open systems require less energy to build and maintain. The closed systems have higher blood pressure as well. 4. List the structural components of a vertebrate circulatory system and relate their structure to their functions.
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This note was uploaded on 11/06/2011 for the course AP BIO 101 taught by Professor Chan during the Fall '05 term at JFK.

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HW #42 - AP Biology Period 4#22 Liem Nguyen...

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