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HW #43 - AP Biology Period 4#22 Liem Nguyen...

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AP Biology Period – 4 #22 Liem Nguyen 3/14/10 Homework #43 (090327): Chapter 43 (due Friday 090327) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Chapter 43: The Immune System Objectives Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection 1. Explain what is meant by nonspecific defense and list the nonspecific lines of defense in the vertebrate body. nonspecific: not able to distinguish inducing agents innate immunity external barriers, internal cellular, chemical defenses Nonspecific defense is when defenses cannot distinguish between inducing agents. Innate immunity is an example, and it includes external barriers, and internal cellular and chemical defenses. 2. Distinguish between: a. innate and acquired immunity b. humoral and cell mediated response innate: there before any exposure to pathogens acquired: develops after exposure to inducing agents humoral: antibodies cell-mediated: cytotoxic lymphocytes Innate immunity is there before any exposure to pathogens, but acquired immunity develops after exposure. b. Humoral response includes antibodies while cell-mediated response includes cytotoxic lymphocytes. 3. Explain how the physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses. secretions of skin, mucous membranes provide hostile environment to microbes antimicrobial proteins ex. lysozyme The physical barrier of skin is reinforced by chemical defenses by secretions of the skin and mucous membranes that can provide a hostile environment to microbes. In addition, secretions might contain antimicrobial proteins such as lysozymes. 4. Define phagocytosis. Name four types of phagocytic leukocytes.
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phagocytosis: ingestion of invading microorganisms by phagocytes neutrophils, macrophages eosinophils, dendritic cells Phagocytosis is the ingestion of invading microorganisms by phagocytes. The four types of phagocytic leukocytes include neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, and dendritic cells. 5. Explain how interferon limits cell-to-cell spread of viruses. secreted by virus-infected body cells induce uninfected cells to produce inhibitors limits cell-to-cell spread of viruses Interferon limits cell-to-cell spread of viruses because interferon is secreted by virus- infected body cells and induce neighboring uninfected cells to produce other substances that inhibit viral reproduction. 6. Describe the inflammation response, including how it is triggered. triggered by damage to tissue by injury entry of pathogens inflammatory response: release of numerous chemical signals Inflammatory response is the release of numerous chemical signals. Inflammation response is triggered by the damage to tissue by physical injury or the entry of pathogens into the body.
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