HW #44 - APBiologyPeriod4#22LiemNguyen...

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AP Biology Period – 4  #22 Liem Nguyen 3/25/10 Homework #44 (090403): Chapter 44 (due Friday 090403) Total points: 40 for Attempt on all questions Concept Map: 10 Points Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and Excretion Objectives An Overview of Osmoregulation 1. Define osmoregulation and excretion. Osmoregulation: how animals regulate solute concentrations and balance gain  and loss of water Excretion: how animals get rid of nitrogen-containing waste products of  metabolism Osmoregulation is the process of regulating solute concentrations and balancing the gain  and loss of water in animals. Excretion is the process of how animals get rid of the  nitrogen-containing waste products of metabolism. 2. Define osmolarity and distinguish among isoosmotic, hyperosmotic, and hypoosmotic   solutions. Osmolarity: osmotic pressure; total solute concentration expressed as molarity  or moles of solute per liter of solution Isoosmotic: if two solutions separated by selectively permeable membrane  have same osmolarity Hyperosmotic: solution with greater concentration of solutes when 2 solutions  differ in osmolarity Hypoosmotic: more dilute solution when 2 solutions differ in osmolarity Osmolarity is the solute concentration presented as molarity. There are three types of  osmolarity: isoosmotic, hyperosmotic, and hypoosmotic. Isoosmotic means that two  solutions being separated by a selectively permeable solution having the same osmolarity.  In a hyperosmotic solution, one of the solutions has a lesser solute concentration than the  other and thus solutes from one of the solution having greater concentration moves to the 
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solution having the lesser solute concentration. 3. Distinguish between osmoregulators and osmoconformers. Explain why osmoregulation   has an energy cost. Osmoregulators: animal that must control its internal osmolarity because its  body fluids are not isoosmotic with outside environment Osmoconformers: animal that does not actively adjust internal osmolarity Osmoconformers are animals that do not have to actively adjust to its internal osmolarity,  simply because their environment is similar in osmolarity with their surroundings,  therefore there is no need to gain or lose water. Osmoregulators are animals that must  control its internal osmolarity because its body fluids are not issosmotic with the outside  environment.  4. Distinguish between stenohaline and euryhaline animals, and explain why euryhaline   animals include both osmoconformers and osmoregulators.
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