wk 10 the environment - World Politics and the Environment...

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Unformatted text preview: World Politics and the Environment World World Population (thousands) World 2000-2050 Year 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Population 6 124 123 6 514 751 6 906 558 7 295 135 7 667 090 8 010 509 8 317 707 8 587 050 8 823 546 9 025 982 9 191 287 Source: Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision and World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unpp, October 2008 Human Impact on the Human Environment Emissions into the atmosphere: 100,000 new chemicals Emissions since 1900 Polluting ecosystems (In US 1 bn tons of pesticide p.a) Polluting Water consumption (>X6 1900-1995) Water Spread of deserts (threatens 1/3 earth land surface) Spread Half world forests gone Half Species extinction: every day 30-140; biggest wave of Species extinction since the dinosaurs 65 million years ago The Environment as an issue The Social movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s: The Silent Spring Politics of the Global Env. Politics United Nations Conferences on the Human United Environment signified the need to address env problems (1972) & UN Conference on Env and Dev (1992). States agree to: States Stockholm Principle 21 (& Rio Principle 2): Stockholm “States have…the sovereign right to exploit their own resources.” Politics of the Global Env cont. Politics Rio Principle 15: “In order to protect Rio the environment, the precautionary approach shall be widely applied by states...” Rio Principle 7: “In view of the different Rio contributions to global environmental degradation, states have common but states differentiated responsibilities…” Sovereignty and Types of Sovereignty Environmental Problems 1. 2. 3. 4. Ecosystems do not follow state Ecosystems demarcations (Global) Commons Shared (common pooled) Resources Transboundary env issues Linked issues Managing the tragedy of the global Managing commons? Global Common: atmosphere, oceans, Global biodiversity, space Owned by everyone, controlled by none (open Owned access) Increased use by one, subtracts from others Increased (subtractability) Leads to overuse/pollution Leads Property rights: Manage through regulation or Property privatisation? ...
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