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Exam 3 Questions - REVIEW QUESTIONS SOCIAL PROBLEMS EXAM...

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REVIEW QUESTIONS SOCIAL PROBLEMS - EXAM 3 (R=Reading; L=Lecture) * Possible Essay Gender Inequalities 1. How does the concept of gender differ from the concept of sex? (L) 2. What is sexism? What are the global consequences of sexism? What are the consequences of sexism in the United States? How does the gender gap in the U.S. compare to that in other countries? (L) Sexism: Belief that one sex is superior to the other sex as a result of innate differences o Prejudice Negative, irrational stereotypes used to prejudge females or males o Discrimination Treating a person differently because of their gender Global Consequences of Sexism: Female infanticide o 60 million “missing” female babies Rape o 1 in 3 females worldwide has been forced to have sex Sex Slaves o 2 million females forced into sex trade each year Genital mutilation Restricted gender roles Political discrimination o In many countries, females have no right to vote. Females perform 2/3 of the world’s work but… o Earn 1/10 of the world’s income o Own less than 1% of the world’s property Lack of education o 2/3 of the world’s women are illiterate Consequences of Sexism in the US: 1 in 5 females will be raped Spousal abuse o Females are 6X more likely to be battered Political representation o In the US, females are disproportionately underrepresented in political offices o US Political Positions Females 52% of population Females elected in 2010 33% in Senate 16% in House 12% woman governors
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The US is not in the top 10 in terms of gender gap rating. We are number 17. We are very low in female economic opportunity. 3. How do the income earnings of full-time employed females compare with those of full-time employed males according to the data reported in class? What accounts for this disparity in income earnings? In answering the latter question, give the explanations of human capital theory, including differences in education and other assets, sex-typed occupations, the devaluation theory, employer discrimination, including the glass ceiling, and differential visibility (discussed in your reading). What are the problems with human capital theory? (L,R) Full time employed females earned 77% of full time employed male earnings in 2009. What accounts for this disparity? o Human Capital Theory Women view fewer assets to the job US Educational Attainment (2008) Females were more likely to graduate HS Females slightly less likely to graduate college o Since 1980, women more likely to earn degree Degrees Earned 2008 Females earned more… o Associate o Bachelor o Masters o Doctorates Males earned more… o Professional 2009 College Enrollment o More females enrolled in… Undergrad programs (57%) Graduate programs (59%) o Problem: Females earn less than males for the same amount of education Other Assets: Females have less work experience. Why?
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