dams_fact_sheet

dams_fact_sheet - Dams Good or Bad? How are dams used? What...

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Dams What is a dam? A dam is a barrier built across a stream, river or estuary to hold and control the flow of water for such uses as drinking water supplies, irrigation, flood control and electric power generation. Types of dams There are several different types of dams including earth fill, rock fill, gravel fill, solid-masonry gravity, solid masonry arch, arch gravity, structural masonry and steel or timber. The choice of dam is decided upon by examining foundation conditions, load strains, temperature and pressure changes, chemical characteristics of ground water and possible seismic activity. The most common types of dams are embankment (earth fill) and masonry (concrete). Embankment dams retain water across wide rivers when large amounts of fill are needed. They are less expensive and more adaptable to natural changes. Masonry dams are made of concrete and they use the force of gravity and the weight of the materials to counteract the horizontal force of the moving water. Another type of masonry dam is the arch. It consists of a convex arch that faces the reservoir and is reinforced by the pressure of the water. A type of embankment dam is a lowhead dam, which is found on the Red River. Lowhead dams are useful for water supply purposes because they provide a pool within the river. This facilitates the access of water from the river through water supply intake structures on the shore. On the other hand, lowhead dams may impact fish spawning
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dams_fact_sheet - Dams Good or Bad? How are dams used? What...

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