Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in a Binary System

Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in a Binary System - Tof,B...

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Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in a Binary System Biphenyl and Naphthalene Tof,B Tof,N T’ XN = 1.0 XB = 0.0 XN = 0.0 XB = 1.0 XN = XN’ XB = 1.0 - XN’
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Melting Point Curves
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Cooling Curves for Solvent A Contaminated by Solute B 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Cooling curve for Pure Solvent Time (minutes) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Cooling Curve for Impure Solvent Time (minutes) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Cooling Curve for Eutectic Time (minutes) Temperature Tof,A= 18 oC XA =1.0 T’ T1 Tof,A T1=15 oC XA < 1.0 T’ = 13 oC XA = XA’
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Practical consequences of freezing point lowering Melting ice of roadways (water and salt) Preventing coolant from freezing in engine block (water and ethylene glycol) Preventing living cells from freezing (water and glucose) in spring peeper frogs Measurement of molecular masses Purity analysis in organic labs
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Experimental Phase Diagram Tof,A Tof,B Slope = RT2/ΔHfus,A A T’ XA’ Slope = −RT2/ΔHfus,B
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Chemical potential as a guide to spontaneity The reaction A → B is spontaneous when
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