13Jan_4 - Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays...

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Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays 8:00-9:15, HCB 102 Mondays 5:15-6:15, KIN 1024 13 January 2010 – Lecture 4 CARBON – THE BACKBONE OF LIFE Carbon: Enters the biosphere through plants (convert CO 2 to sugar and biological macromolecules) Unique in its ability to form molecules that are large complex and diverse Forms bonds with H, N, O, P, and S to make biological macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) Develop our understanding of carbon on three fronts: I. The study of carbon compounds II. Carbon makes four bonds III. A small number of chemical groups are key to molecular diversity I. The study of carbon compounds – Organic chemistry A. Organic compounds = carbon containing compounds B. Range from small molecules (CH 4 ) huge macromolecules (chromosomes) C. Think of C as the coolest, tiny-est LEGO ever II. Carbon bonds to four other atoms A. Carbon has 6 electrons A.1. 2 in first shell A.2. 4 in second shell (4 valence electrons) B. Completes outer shell by sharing its 4 valence electrons with other atoms C. Tetravalence is what makes carbon so versatile D. Single and double bond geometry – Shape and function intertwined in biology D.1. Hybrid orbitals and tetravalence give methane a tetrahedral geometry – Bond an D.2. Hybrid orbitals of double bonds create a trigonal planar molecule – Bond angles o III. Carbon backbones can connect diverse molecules A. Carbon Backbone variation A.1. Length A.2. Branching A.3. Double bonds A.4. Circularization The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibility with many different ele The valences of carbon and its most frequent partners (hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) a “building code” that governs the architecture of living molecules B. Hydrocarbons B.1. Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen B.2. Many organic molecules, such as fats, have hydrocarbon components B.3. Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy C. Isomers C.1. Structural isomers have different covalent arrangements of their atoms 1
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Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays 8:00-9:15, HCB 102 Mondays 5:15-6:15, KIN 1024 13 January 2010 – Lecture 4 C.2. Geometric isomers have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements C.3. Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other IV. A small number of chemical groups make biological molecules KNOW FIGURE 4.10 Functional groups are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions: hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydrol, phosphate, methyl 2
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13Jan_4 - Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays...

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