18Jan_5 - Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays...

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Tuesdays and Thursdays 8:00-9:15, HCB 102 Mondays 5:15-6:15, KIN 1024 18 January 2010 – Lecture 5 LIPIDS Share one important trait: mix poorly with water Are not true polymeric macromolecules Some polar parts, but generally hydrocarbons (non-polar) We will focus on Fats, Phospholipids and Steroids 1. Fats a. Fats are constructed from two types of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids a.i. Fatty acids a.i.1. Think about the name fatty acid (Hydrocarbon + Carboxyllic acid) a.i.2. A fatty acid consists of a carboxyl group attached to a long carbon skeleton a.ii. Glycerol a.ii.1. three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon a.iii. Three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by an ester linkage, creating a triacylglycerol, or triglyceride a.iv. Fatty acids vary in a.iv.1. length (number of carbons) a.iv.2. number and locations of double bonds a.iv.2.a. Saturated fatty acids a.iv.2.a.i. have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds (They are saturated with hydrogens) a.iv.2.a.ii. solids at room temperature a.iv.2.a.iii. animal fats (except for fish) a.iv.2.b. Unsaturated fatty acids a.iv.2.b.i. have one or more double bonds a.iv.2.b.ii. liquids at room temperature a.iv.2.b.iii. plant and fish fats b. Some points on hydrogenation b.i. A diet rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease through plaque deposits b.ii. Hydrogenation is the process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen b.iii. Hydrogenating vegetable oils also creates unsaturated fats with trans double bonds b.iv. These trans fats may contribute more than saturated fats to cardiovascular disease c. Functions in biology c.i. The major function of fats is energy storage c.i.1. A gram of fat stores twice as much energy as a gram of carbohydrate (Remember my gasoline analogy last Thursday??) c.i.2. Plants don’t have to move so they can store carbohydrates, animals move so need a more efficient energy storage solution. 1
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18Jan_5 - Biological Science I Tuesdays and Thursdays...

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