patino_chm2046_chapter19

patino_chm2046_chapter19 - Chapter 19 Radioactivity and...

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Chapter 19 Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry
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2 GOALS Types of radioactivity Identify radioactive nuclides Nuclear equations Binding energy; per nucleon; units Kinetics of radioactive decay
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3 Facts About the Atomic Nucleus Every atom of an element has the same number of protons ( +ve ) atomic number ( Z ) Atoms of the same elements can have different numbers of neutrons ( no charge ) Isotopes: atoms of the same element, having same atomic number, Z, but different mass number, A (diff no. of neutrons). Isotopes are identified by their mass number ( A ) mass number = number of protons + neutrons
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4 Facts About the Atomic Nucleus mass number = number of protons + neutrons neutrons = mass number – number of protons The nucleus of an isotope is called a nuclide Each nuclide is identified by a symbol X Element A Z number mass number atomic =
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Nuclide Symbols Nuclide Symbols Boron-10 ( Boron-10 ( 10 10 5 B) has 5 p and 5 n B) has 5 p and 5 n Boron-11 ( Boron-11 ( 11 11 5 B) has 5 p and 6 n B) has 5 p and 6 n 10 B 11 B Oxygen-16 ( Oxygen-16 ( 16 16 8 O) has 8 p and 8 n O) has 8 p and 8 n Oxygen-17 ( Oxygen-17 ( 17 17 8 O) has 8 p and 9 n O) has 8 p and 9 n Oxygen-18 ( Oxygen-18 ( 18 18 8 O) has 8 p and 10 n O) has 8 p and 10 n
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6 The Discovery of Radioactivity Becquerel discovered that certain minerals were constantly producing penetrating energy rays he called uranic rays (1896) Marie Curie discovered 2 new elements (Po, Ra) which also emitted uranic rays. Curie changed term uranic rays to radioactivity (present in elements other than uranium). Some nuclei are unstable; they emit particles and/or electromagnetic radiation spontaneously. This is radioactivity.
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7 Types of Radioactive Rays Rutherford discovered there were 3 types of radioactivity; 2 additional types were later discovered. alpha ( α ) & beta ( β ) decay, gamma ray ( γ 29; then positron emission, and electron capture. Another type of radioactivity ( nuclear transmutation ) results from the bombardment of nuclei (heavy) by neutrons, protons or other nuclei (lighter).
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8 Penetrating Ability of Radioactive Rays α β γ 0.01 mm 1 mm 100 mm Pieces of lead
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Particle Symbol Nuclear Symbol proton p + neutron n 0 electron e- alpha α beta β , β - positron β , β + 9 Important Atomic Symbols p H 1 1 1 1 n 1 0 e 0 1 - He α 4 2 4 2 e β 0 1 0 1 - - e β 0 1 0 1 + +
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10 Nuclear Equations nuclear processes are described using nuclear equations use the symbol of the nuclide to represent the nucleus atomic numbers and mass numbers are conserved use this to predict identity of daughter nuclide if parent and emitted particle are known nuclides daughter He Th U nuclide parent 4 2 234 90 238 92 + emitted particle: product captured particle: reactant He Th U 4 2 234 90 238 92 +
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11 Alpha Emission an α particle contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons most ionizing, but least penetrating loss of an alpha particle means
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patino_chm2046_chapter19 - Chapter 19 Radioactivity and...

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