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03_06_Lei - Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in...

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Detection of a direct carbon dioxide effect in continental river runoff records N. Gedney, P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, O. Boucher, C. Huntingford & P. A. Stott
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Possible reasons for river runoff increase climate change and variability Deforestation (land cover change) solar dimming (aerosol effect) direct atmospheric CO 2 effects on plant transpiration Runoff is the movement of landwater to the  oceans, chiefly in the form of rivers, lakes,  and streams.  Transpiration is the evaporation of  water into the atmosphere from the  leaves and stems of plants.
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On annual and longer timescales, runoff (R) = precipitation (P) – evapotranspiration (ET) Evapotranspiration is a function of energy and water availability, near-surface atmospheric conditions and the control of transpiration by plants. Climate change and variability modify precipitation patterns and near-surface meteorology. Increased aerosol concentration reduces surface solar radiation, leading to reductions in open-pan evaporation. Landcover changes modify the depth of the soil from which plants can extract water and the available energy by changing the land- surface albedo. Stomatal apertures on plant leaves are observed to close partially under increased CO 2 , leading to suppression of transpiration
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Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme (MOSES), using a monthly observational data set of the twentieth-century climate.
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