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Unformatted text preview: GLACE: The Global LandAtmosphere Coupling Experiment. Part I: Overview R ANDAL D. K OSTER , a Z HICHANG G UO , b P AUL A. D IRMEYER , b G ORDON B ONAN , c E DMOND C HAN , d P ETER C OX , e H ARVEY D AVIES , f C. T. G ORDON , g S HINJIRO K ANAE , h E VA K OWALCZYK , f D AVID L AWRENCE , i P ING L IU , j C HENG-H SUAN L U , k S ERGEY M ALYSHEV , l B RYANT M C A VANEY , m K EN M ITCHELL , k D AVID M OCKO , j T AIKAN O KI , n K EITH W. O LESON , c A NDREW P ITMAN , o Y. C. S UD , a C HRISTOPHER M. T AYLOR , p D IANA V ERSEGHY , d R ATKO V ASIC , q Y ONGKANG X UE , q AND T OMOHITO Y AMADA n a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland b Center for OceanLandAtmosphere Studies, Calverton, Maryland c National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado d Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada e Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Dorset, Dorset, United Kingdom f CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia g Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey h Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Kyoto, Japan i University of Reading, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom j Science Applications International Corporation, Beltsville, Maryland k National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Camp Springs, Maryland l Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey m Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia n University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan o Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia p Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom q University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (Manuscript received 5 April 2005, in final form 31 October 2005) ABSTRACT The Global LandAtmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) is a model intercomparison study fo- cusing on a typically neglected yet critical element of numerical weather and climate modeling: land atmosphere coupling strength, or the degree to which anomalies in land surface state (e.g., soil moisture) can affect rainfall generation and other atmospheric processes. The 12 AGCM groups participating in GLACE performed a series of simple numerical experiments that allow the objective quantification of this element for boreal summer. The derived coupling strengths vary widely. Some similarity, however, is found in the spatial patterns generated by the models, with enough similarity to pinpoint multimodel hot spots of landatmosphere coupling. For boreal summer, such hot spots for precipitation and temperature are found over large regions of Africa, central North America, and India; a hot spot for temperature is also found over eastern China. The design of the GLACE simulations are described in full detail so that any interested modeling group can repeat them easily and thereby place their models coupling strength within the broad range of those documented here....
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