10_Petrucci10e_SSM - CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING I BASIC...

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218 CHAPTER 10 CHEMICAL BONDING I: BASIC CONCEPTS PRACTICE EXAMPLES 1A Mg is in group 2(2A), and thus has 2 valence electrons and 2 dots in its Lewis symbol. Ge is in group 14(4A), and thus has 4 valence electrons and 4 dots in its Lewis symbol. K is in group 1(1A), and thus has 1 valence electron and 1 dot in its Lewis symbol. Ne is in group 18(8A), and thus has 8 valence electrons and 8 dots in its Lewis symbol. Mg Ge K Ne : :   1B Sn is in Family 4A, and thus has 4 electrons and 4 dots in its Lewis symbol. Br is in Family 7A with 7 valence electrons. Adding an electron produces an ion with 8 valence electrons. Tl is in Family 3A with 3 valence electrons. Removing an electron produces a cation with 2 valence electrons. S is in Family 6A with 6 valence electrons. Adding 2 electrons produces an anion with 8 valence electrons. Sn [ Br ] : :   [ Tl ] + 2 [ S ] : :   2A The Lewis structures for the cation, the anion, and the compound follows the explanation. (a) Na loses one electron to form Na + , while S gains two to form S 2 . Na e Na  1 + 2 S 2e [ S ] : :     Lewis Structure: + 2 + [Na] [ S ] [Na] : :   (b) Mg loses two electrons to form Mg 2+ , while N gains three to form N 3 .  Mg e Mg 2 2+ 3 N 3e [ N ] : :    2+ 3 2+ 3 2+ Lewis Structure: [Mg] [ N ] [Mg] [ N ] [Mg] : : : :         2B Below each explanation are the Lewis structures for the cation, the anion, and the compound. (a) In order to acquire a noble-gas electron configuration, Ca loses two electrons, and I gains one, forming the ions Ca 2+ and I . The formula of the compound is CaI 2 .  Ca e Ca 2 2+ : [: :] I e I . . . . . . . .  Lewis Structure: 2+ [: I :] [Ca] [: I :] .. .. .. .. (b) Ba loses two electrons and S gains two to acquire a noble-gas electron configuration, forming the ions Ba 2+ and S 2 . The formula of the compound is BaS.  Ba e Ba 2 2+ 2 S 2e [:S:] .. .. . . .. .. Lewis Structure: 2+ 2 [Ba] [:S:] .. .. (c) Each Li loses one electron and each O gains two to attain a noble-gas electron configuration, producing the ions Li + and O 2 . The formula of the compound is 2 Li O . + - Li -1 e Li . . . . 2 . . . . O 2e [: O :]  Lewis Structure: + 2 + [Li] [: O :] [Li] .. ..
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Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding I: Basic Concepts 219 3A In the Br 2 molecule, the two Br atoms are joined by a single covalent bond. This bonding arrangement gives each Br atom a closed valence shell configuration that is equivalent to that for a Kr atom. : Br Br : .. .. .. .. In CH 4 , the carbon atom is covalently bonded to four hydrogen atoms. This arrangement gives the carbon atom a valence shell octet and each H atom a valence shell duet.
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