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Unformatted text preview: 6.012  Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 12  Subthreshold MOSFET Operation  Outline • Announcement
Hour exam two: in 2 weeks, Thursday, Nov. 5, 7:309:30 pm • Review ALSO: sign up for an iLab account!! MOSFET model: gradual channel approximation
iD ≈ (Example: nMOS)
0
for (vGS – VT)/α ≤ 0 ≤ vDS (cutoff)
K(vGS – VT)2 /2
for 0 ≤ (vGS – VT)/α ≤ vDS (saturation)
K(vGS – VT – αvDS/2)αvDS for 0 ≤ vDS ≤ (vGS – VT)/α (linear) with K ≡ (W/αL)µeCox*, VT = VFB – 2φpSi + [2εSi qNA(2φpSi – vBS)]1/2/Cox*
and α = 1 + [(εSi qNA/2(2φpSi – vBS)]1/2 /Cox (frequently α ≈ 1)
The factor α: what it means physically • Subthreshold operation  qualitative explanation
Looking back at Lecture 10 (Subthreshold electron charge) Operating an nchannel MOSFET as a lateral npn BJT The subthreshold MOSFET gatecontrolled lateral BJT Why we care and need to quantify these observations • Quantitative subthreshold modeling
iD,subthreshold(φ(0)), then iD,st(vGS, vDS)
[with vBS = 0] Stepping back and looking at the equations Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 1 Final comments on α The Gradual Channel result ignoring α and valid for v BS " 0, and v DS # 0 is:
iG (vGS , v DS , v BS ) = 0, iB (vGS , v DS , v BS ) = 0, and
0
iD (vGS , v DS , v BS ) = K
2
[vGS " VT (v BS )]
2
#
v&
K $vGS " VT (v BS ) " DS ' v DS
%
2( for
!
for [vGS " VT (v BS )] < 0 < v DS
0 < [vGS " VT (v BS )] < v DS for 0 < v DS < [vGS " VT (v BS )] with K ) W
*
*
µe Cox and Cox ) *ox t ox
L We noted last lecture that these simple expressions without α are easy to remember, and refining them to include α involves easy to remember substitutions: v DS " # v DS
L "#L
K "K #
!
What we haven't done yet is to look at α itself, and ask what it means. What is it physically?
1/xDT(VBS) G
!
*
Cox + $Si qN A 2$Si 2% p & Si & v BS
εox
1
$SiqN A
εox/tox
" # 1+ *
=
*
Cox 2 2% p & Si & v BS
Cox
εSi
εSi/xDT
*
*
"Si x DT
"Si t ox
CDT CDT
B
= 1+
= 1+
= 1+ * = *
"ox t ox
"ox x DT
Cox CGB
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09
Lecture 12  Slide 2 [ ! [ Look back at Lec. 10. Foil 7 from Lecture 10 MOS Capacitors: the gate charge as vGB is varied
qG [coul/cm2]
*
"
2Cox2 (vGB $ VFB ) (
#SiqN A %
"
' 1+
qG =
$ 1*
"
'
*
Cox &
#SiqN A
) "
"
qG = Cox (vGB # VT ) Inversion
Layer
Charge + qN AP X DT qNAPXDT ! Depletion
Region
Charge VFB
"
"
qG = Cox (vGB # VFB ) The charge expressions:
"
, Cox (vGB # VFB )
.
"
. %SiqN A &
2Cox2 (vGB # VFB ) )
"
( 1+
qG (vGB ) = # 1+
"
(
+
%SiqN A
. Cox '
*
. C " (v # V ) + qN X
/ ox GB
T
A DT
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 vGB [V] VT Accumulation
Layer Charge "
Cox # for vGB $ VFB for $ox
t ox VFB $ vGB $ VT
!
VT $ vGB for Lecture 12  Slide 3 Foil 8 from Lecture 10 MOS Capacitors: How good is all this modeling?
How can we know?
Poisson's Equation in MOS
As we argued when starting, Jh and Je are zero in steady
state so the carrier populations are in equilibrium with
the potential barriers, φ(x), as they are in thermal
equilibrium, and we have: n ( x ) = n ie q" ( x ) kT and p( x ) = n ie# q" ( x ) kT Once again this means we can find φ(x), and then n(x) and
p(x), by solving Poisson's equation: ! d 2" ( x )
q
= # n i (e# q" ( x ) / kT # e q" ( x ) / kT ) + N d ( x ) # N a ( x )
dx 2
$ [ ! This version is only valid, however, when φ(x) ≤ φp.
When φ(x) > φp we have accumulation and inversion layers,
and we assume them to be infinitely thin sheets of charge,
i.e. we model them as delta functions.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 4 Foil 9 from Lecture 10 Poisson's Equation calculation of gate charge
Calculation compared with depletion approximation
model for tox = 3 nm and NA = 1018 cm3: tox,eff ≈ 3.2 nm tox,eff ≈ 3.3 nm Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 We'll look in this
vicinity today.
We've ignored
subthreshold
charge in our
MOSFET iv
modelling thus
far. Lecture 12  Slide 5 Plot courtesy of Prof. Antoniadis Foil 10 from Lecture 10 MOS Capacitors: Subthreshold charge
Assessing how much we are neglecting
Sheet density of electrons below threshold in weak inversion
In the depletion approximation for the MOS we say that the
charge due to the electrons is negligible before we reach
threshold and the strong inversion layer builds up:
*
qN ( inversion ) (vGB ) = " Cox (vGB " VT ) But how good an approximation is this? To see, we calculate the electron charge below threshold (weak inversion): qN ( sub " threshold ) (vGB ) = " q ! 0 $ ne x d ( vGB ) i q# ( x ) / kT dx φ(x) is a nonlinear function of x, making the integral difficult, "( x) = " p +
! qN A
2
x  xd )
(
2#Si but if we use a linear approximation for φ(x) near x = 0,
where the term in the integral is largest, we can get a very
good approximate analytical expression for the integral. ! Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 6 Foil 11 from Lecture 10 Subthreshold electron charge, cont. We begin by saying 2qN A [" (0) % " p ]
d" ( x )
" ( x ) # " (0) + ax where a $
=%
where
dx x = 0
&Si With this linear approximation to φ(x) we can do the integral and find ! ! qN ( sub " threshold ) (vGB ) # q kT n (0)
kT
= "q
qa
q $Si
n ie q% ( 0 ) kT
2qN A [% (0) " % p ] To proceed it is easiest to evaluate this expression for various
values of φ(0) below threshold (when its value is φp), and to
also find the corresponding value of vGB, from vGB " VFB = # (0) " # p + t ox
2$SiqN A [# (0) " # p ]
$ox This has been done and is plotted along with the strong
inversion layer charge above threshold on the following foil.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 ! Lecture 12  Slide 7 Foil 12 from Lecture 10 Subthreshold electron charge, cont. 6 mV Neglecting this charge in the electrostatics calculation resulted in
only a 6 mV error in our estimate of the threshold voltage value.
Today we will look at its impact on the subthreshold drain current.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 8 MOSFETs: Conventional strong inversion operation,
VGS > VT vGS > V T +G
S–
n+ vDS > 0 D i
D
n+ pSi
vBS +
B High concentration of
electrons in a strong inversion
layer drifting to the drain
because of field due to v DS . ntype surface channel; drift flux from source to drain
In our gradual channel approximation modeling we have assume a
high conductivity ntype channel has been induced under the gate.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 9 MOSFETs: Subthreshold operation, VGS < VT
~
vGS ~ V T +G
<
S–
n+ vDS > 0 D i
D
n+ pSi
A small number of electrons
surmount the barrier and
diffuse to drain. vBS
+
B The electrons diffuse and do not
“feel” v DS until they get to the
edge of the depletion region. No surface channel; diffusion flux from source to drain when vDS > 0
For any vGB > VFB some electrons in the source can surmount the
barrier and diffuse to the drain. Though always small, this flux can
become consequential as vGS approaches VT.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 10 MOSFETs: Subthreshold operation, VGS < VT
~
What do we mean by "consequential"?
When is this current big enough to matter?
There are at least three places where it matters: 1. It can limit the gain of a MOSFET linear amplifier.
In Lecture 21 we will learn that we achieve maximum gain from
MOSFETs operating in strong inversion when we bias as close to
threshold as possible. This current limits how close we can get. 2. It is a major source of power dissipation and heating in
modern VLSI digital ICs.
When you have millions of MOSFETs on an IC chip, even a little bit
of current through the half that are supposed to be "off" can add up
to a lot of power dissipation. We'll see this in Lecture 16. 3. It can be used to make very low voltage, ultralow power
integrated circuits.
In Lecture 25 we'll talk about MIT/TI research on subthreshold
circuits with 0.3 V supplies and using µW's of power.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 11 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs: finding iD Begin by considering the device illustrated below:
G S tox
0 n+ n+ p tn+
0 x D B L y  Set vGS = VFB, and vDS = vBS = 0.  The potential profile vs. y, (y) at any x between 0 and tn+ is then: tox
0 S vGS = VFB n+ G vDS = 0 D n+ p y tn+
x φ(y)
φn+ vBS = 0 Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 0 B
L y 0
φp L Lecture 12  Slide 12 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Now consider φ(y) when vGS = VFB, vBS = 0. and vDS > 0: tox S
0 vGS = VFB G vDS > 0 D φ(y)
φn++ vDS n+ n+ p vDS φn+ tn+
x y vBS = 0
0 0 B
L y L φp  So far this is standard MOSFET operating procedure. We could
apply a positive voltage to the gate and when it was larger than VT
we would see the normal drain current that we modeled earlier.
Rather than do this, however, consider forward biasing the
substratesource diode junction, I.e, vBS > 0…
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 13 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Apply vBS > 0, keep the same vDS > 0, and adjust vGS such that the potential at the oxideSi interface, φ(0,y), equals φp + vBS.
 Now consider φ(x,y): vGS s.t. φ(0,y) = φp + vBS tox 0 G S
Electron
Injection
and
Diffusion n+ φ(y)
vDS > 0 φn+ n+ p tn+
x φn++ vDS D 0 vBS > 0
0 B
L ( y vBS y p',n'  With this biasing the structure is being operated as a lateral BJT! The drain/collector current is: De
iD / C " W t n +q n i2
e qv BS / kT # 1
N Ap Leff
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 L φp+ vBS
φp ) n'(0+) = npo(eqvBS/kT1) 0  This is not subthreshold operation yet. L y
Lecture 12  Slide 14 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Now again make vBS = 0, but keep the same vDS and vGS so that
the potential at the oxideSi interface, φ(0,y), is still > φp.  Now φ(x,y) is different for 0 < x < xD, φ(0,y)
and xD < x < tn+: φn++ vDS
vGS s.t. φ(0,y) > φp
G
vDS > 0
φ
D
tox S
φp n+
0
φ(x)
xD
Injection n+ n+ p 0 tn+
x φ(x)φp y L φp
vBS = 0
0 B
L  Now there is lateral BJT action
only along the interface.
 The drain current that flows in
this case is the subthreshold
drain current.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 y φ(y)
φn++ vDS
φn+
0 L y φp  This is subthreshold operation! Lecture 12  Slide 15 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.  The barrier at the n+p junction is lowered near the oxideSi
interface for any vGS > VFB.
 The barrier is lowered by φ(x)  φp for 0 < x < xD. Plot vs y
at ﬁxed x,
0 < x < xD. (This is the effective vBE on the lateral BJT between x and x + dx.) tox S VFB < vGS < VT G 0 vDS > 0 φ(0,y)
D φn++ vDS Injection xD n+ φ p
φ(x) n+ p tn+
x vBS = 0
0 φ(x) B
L y  The barrier lowering
vGS
(effective forward bias)
(1) is controlled by vGS,
and (2) decreases
quickly with x.
vBE,eff(x)
= [φ(x)− φp]
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 φn+
y φ(x)φp L 0 φp
Plot vs x
at ﬁxed y,
0 < y < L.  φp φ(0)
tox xd x φp
Injection occurs over this range. Lecture 12  Slide 16 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 To calculate iD, we first find the current in each dx thick slab:
G VFB < vGS < VT S vDS > 0 D tox
0 x
x+dx n+ n+ p xD vBS = 0
vDS > 0
y x n ' ( x, 0) = n i (e q" ( x ,vGS ) / kT # 1) $ n ie q" ( x ,vGS ) / kT diD ( x ) = q De
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 ! 0 L n ' ( x, L) " n ie q# ( x,vGD ) / kT n ' ( x, 0) " n ' ( x, L)
W
W dx #
De q n ie q$ ( x,vGS ) / kT (1 " e" qv DS ) / kT ) dx
L
L ! Lecture 12  Slide 17 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Then we add up all the contributions to get iD: '
W $0
q" ( x , vGS ) / kT
iD =
De & # q n ie
dx)(1 * e* qv DS / kT )
L & xd
)
%
(
 This is what we called qN(subthreshold) in Lecture 9 and today on Foil 7.
Substituting the expression we found for this (see Foil 7), we have: %
W
kT
iD ( sub " threshold ) =
De 'q
L
'q
&
! (
#Si
n ie q $ ( 0,vGS ) kT *(1 " e" qv DS / kT )
2qN A [$ (0, vGS ) " $ p ]
*
)  Using the Einstein relation and replacing ni with NAeqφp/kT, we obtain: # kT & 2 1
W
*
iD ( sub " th ) = µe Cox % (
*
L
$ q ' 2 Cox 2 q)Si N A
q {* ( 0, vGS )"[ "* p ] }
e
[* (0,vGS ) " * p ] kT (1 " e " qv DS / kT  To finish (we are almost done) we need to replace φ(0,vGS) with vGS
since we want the drain current's dependence on the terminal voltage.
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 18 ) Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.  The relationship relating φ(0,vGS) and vGS is: vGS = VFB 1
+ [" (0) # " p ] + * 2$SiqN A [" (0) # " p ]
Cox  From this we can relate a change in vGS to a change in φ(0), which is what we really need. To first order the two are linearly related: ! "vGS '
)
dvGS
1
#
"$ (0) = (1 +
*
d$ (0)
) 2 Cox
* +
2%SiqN A )
, "$ (0) . n "$ (0)
[$ (0) & $ p ] )
"n  In the current equation we have the quantity {φ(0,vGS)  [φp]}.  φp is
simply φ(0,VT), the potential at x = 0 when the gate voltage is VT, so {" (0,v ! GS ) # [#" p ]} = {" (0, vGS ) # " (0,VT )} = {vGS # VT } n !  Using this and the definition for n, we arrive at: ! iD ( sub " threshold ) # Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 W
*
µe Cox
L $ kT ' 2
q v "V
n kT
n " 1) e { GS T } (1 " e" qv DS / kT )
& )(
%q(
Lecture 12  Slide 19 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 To fully complete our modeling, we must add two more points:
1. The dependences on vBS and vDS:
vBS: The threshold voltage depends on vBS. φ(0,VT) does also,
i.e. φ(0,VT) =  φpvBS, and so do the junction barriers. Taking
this all into account we find that the only change we need to
make is to acknowledge that n and VT both depend on vBS.
vDS: The drain to source voltage introduced a factor (1  eqvDS/kT) ≈ 1.
This is discussed in the handout posted on Stellar.
The complete expression for iD is: iD ,s" t (vGS , v DS , v BS ) # ! W
*
µe Cox
L $ kT ' 2
q { vGS "VT ( v BS )} n kT
(1 " e" qvDS / kT )
& ) [ n (v BS ) " 1] e
%q( 2. The factor n:
The value of n depends on φ(0,vGS). Notice, however, that the subthreshold current is largest as φ(0,vGS) approaches φpvBS, so it
makes sense to evaluate it there and take that as its value for all
vGS:
&
*&
* (
1
n " '1 +
*
( 2 Cox
) Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 2#SiqN A ( (
1
+  '1 + *
[$ (0) % $ p ] ( ( Cox
,) (
#SiqN A
+
2[%2$ p % v BS ] (
, ** Notice that this is exactly the same expression as that for α! Lecture 12  Slide 20 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Comparing current levels above and below threshold:
The ranges of the two models do not overlap, but is it still
interesting to compare the largest possible value of the subthreshold drain current model (vGS  VT = 0 V),* with the strong
inversion model at vGS  VT = 0.06 V, 0.1 V, and 0.2 V: iD ( sub " threshold )
K $ kT ' 2
q v "V
n kT
# & ) ( n " 1) e { GS T }
%q(
(0.025)2 iD ( strong inversion )
! K " 1
2
vGS $ VT )
(
2#
0.4 ! 0.25 (0.06)2 (0.1)2
(0.2)2 1 vBS = 0 = 1.56 x 104 V2 = 1.5 x 103 V2
= 4 x 103 V2
= 1.6 x 102 V2 We see that the current in strong inversion drift current quickly
becomes much larger, although only grows quadratically. Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 * This is pushing the model, particularly with regard to the
diffusion current model, beyond it's range of strict validity,
and is probably somewhat of an overestimate. Lecture 12  Slide 21 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.  Plotting our models for the earlier device: NA = 1018 cm3, tox = 3 nm: vBS = 0 Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 22 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.  Zooming into a lower current scale: NA = 1018 cm3, tox = 3 nm: vBS = 0 Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 23 Subthreshold Operation of MOSFETs, cont.
 Repeating the plot with a log current scale: NA = 1018 cm3, tox = 3 nm: Slope = 60 x n mV/decade* Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 * n = 1.25 here so 75 mV/decade vBS = 0 Lecture 12  Slide 24 Subthreshold Output Characteristic
 We plot a family of iD vs vDS curves with (vGS  VT) as the family variable, after first defining the subthreshold diode saturation 2
$ kT '
current, IS,st: W
*
IS ,s" t # µe Cox & ) [ n " 1] = K o Vt2 [ n " 1]
L
%q(
kT
Note : Vt "
,
q
log iD,st
! (vGSVT) = 0.12xn Volts 102 IS,st (vGSVT) = 0.18xn Volts 103 IS,st (vGSVT) = 0.24xn Volts IS,st vDS iD ,s" t (vGS , v DS ) # IS ,s" t e
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 ! W
*
µe Cox
L (vGSVT) = 0.06xn Volts 101 IS,st
! 104 Ko " q { vGS "VT } n kT 1 " e" qv DS / kT )
( Note: The device we modeled had n = 1.25, so it
follows a "75 mV rule" [i.e. 60 x n = 75]. vBS = 0 Lecture 12  Slide 25 Subthreshold Output Characteristic, cont.
 To compare this with something we've already seen, consider the
BJT and plot a family of iC vs vCE curves with vBE as the family
variable
log iC
vBE = 0.66 Volts 10+11 αFIES vBE = 0.60 Volts 10+10 αFIES
10+9
10+8 vBE = 0.54 Volts αFIES vBE = 0.48 Volts αFIES vCE iC (v BE , vCE ) " # F IES e qv BE kT (1 $ e $ qvCE / kT )  The two biggest differences are (1) the magnitudes of the IS's,
and (2) the factor of "n" in the MOSFET case. The totality of vBE
reduces the barrier, whereas only a fraction 1/n of vGS does.
!
 A third difference is that a BJT has a base current.*
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 Lecture 12  Slide 26
* This is the price paid for having n = 1 in a BJT. Large Signal Model for MOSFET Operating Subthreshold
 The large signal model for a MOSFET operating in the weak
inversion or subthreshold region looks the same model as that
for a device operating in strong inversion (vGS > VT) EXCEPT
there is a different equation relating iD to vGS, vDS, and vBS:
We will limit our model to vGS " VT , v DS > 3 kT / q and v BS = 0. D
! iD
iD (vGS , vDS ) G
iG (= 0)
iG ,s" t (vGS , v DS , v BS ) = 0 S,B iD ,s" t (vGS , v DS , 0) # IS ,s" t (1 " $v DS ) e Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 ! Early effect q { vGS "VTo } n kT (1 " e " qv DS / kT ) ≈ 1 for vDS > 3 kT/q
Lecture 12  Slide 27 6.012  Microelectronic Devices and Circuits Lecture 12  Subthreshold MOSFET Operation  Summary Subthreshold operation  qualitative explanation
Look back at Lecture 10
(Subthreshold electron charge) BJT action in depletion/weak inversion layer along oxide the interface MOSFET gatecontrolled lateral BJT Important in/for 1. power dissipation in normallyoff logic gates
2. limiting the gain of strong inversion linear amplifiers
3. realizing ultralow power, very low voltage electronics Quantitative subthreshold modeling
This gives us a precise description of the voltage dependence
It also gives us the information on IS,st and n we need for
device design iD ,s" t (vGS , v DS , v BS ) # IS ,s" t e
with:
IS ,s" t
Clif Fonstad, 10/22/09 ! $ kT ' 2
W
*
# µe Cox & ) [ n " 1]
L
%q( q { vGS "VT ( v BS )} n kT &
(
1
and n " '1 + *
( Cox
) 1 " e" qv DS / kT )
( *
(
#SiqN A
+ =2[$2% p $ v BS ] (
, Lecture 12  Slide 28 MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu 6.012 Microelectronic Devices and Circuits
Fall 2009 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course COMPUTERSC 6.012 taught by Professor Charlesg.sodini during the Fall '09 term at MIT.
 Fall '09
 CharlesG.Sodini

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