MarBiolBasicsBiology

MarBiolBasicsBiology - Some Basics of Biology A review Lets...

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Some Basics of Biology A review
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Let’s Review All living things use energy The chemical reactions that sustain life are called metabolism . These reactions require energy. Living things also require energy to maintain stable internal conditions (i.e. temperature, internal salts content), that are different from their surroundings. This process is called homeostasis. Another characteristic of living organisms is that they reproduce to perpetuate their species. Viruses are considered not living because even though they reproduce, they have no metabolism of their own
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Entropy is a measure of randomness of molecules in a system Organization (and life) require energy input Totally random systems Require no energy
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The Building Blocks: Organic compounds Organic compounds are those that contain Carbon , Hydrogen and Oxygen (and some contain other elements such as nitrogen and/or phosphorus etc.) These are high energy molecules (because it takes energy to make them and their chemical bonds have potential energy) When organic compounds break down, they release energy Organisms have developed the ability to control this breakdown to use the energy for their metabolism . Most organic compounds belong to 4 main groups: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids & Nucleic Acids
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Carbohydrates Composed of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H) & Glucose is a simple sugar and is used as a direct energy source Starches consist of much longer chains of simple sugars and are used for energy reserves Structural materials are those such as cellulose which plants use to give rigidity. In animals, chitin is a carbohydrate used for invertebrate exoskeletons. Chitin also contains nitrogen.
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Glucose A simple sugar C6 H12 O6
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Chitin is a carbohydrate that is used to make the exoskeleton of invertebrates Lobster exoskeleton
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Chitin is a very abundant marine carbohydrate and is used to form the exoskeletons of arthropods (crabs, lobster, copepods and many zooplankton) Chitin has many commercial applications, namely to make chitosan & crabyon
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Crabyon is used for making clothing It has antibacterial and anti odor properties Made from crab exoskeletons
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Chitosan is used for making bandages The bandage is positively charged and blood cells are charged negatively. It stops bleeding almost immediately. Made from shrimp.
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Starch & Cellulose consists of long chains of simple sugars such as glucose
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Proteins Proteins are used to make muscles and enzymes which speed up chemical reactions Hormones are proteins which act as messengers to help different parts of the body work together (testosterone, estrogen etc)
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Proteins consist of amino acids and contain nitrogen (N) in addition to C, H, & O
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Lipids Examples are A property of lipids is that they repel water
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course BIO 160 taught by Professor Dr.jonstern during the Fall '08 term at S.F. State.

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MarBiolBasicsBiology - Some Basics of Biology A review Lets...

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