Unformatted text preview: Marine Biology
The science of biology applied to the sea Check iLearn for course information Check iLearn for course information • Syllabus and lectures are posted there
• Instructor: Dr. Ed Carpenter [email protected] •
• Office Hours 2:003:00 Tues & Thurs. Check with instructor after class to schedule. TA is Jessica Donald
Text Book: P. Castro & M.E. Huber 2005 MARINE BIOLOGY 5th or 6th ed. McGraw Hill
Three copies are on reserve in the SFSU Library Aug 25 Introduction, history and scientific method Chap. 1
Aug 27 The Sea Floor Chap. 2
Sept 1 Seawater Properties Chap 3
Sept 3 Ocean currents & Atmospheric Circulation & Some Basics of Biology, Chap. 4 (see lecture posted on Chap. 4 on iLearn)
Sept 8 Phytoplankton Chap. 5 (last day to request audit grading and last day to add course). This is a Furlough Day…..No class but go over lecture on iLearn
Sept 10 EXAM
Sept 11 Last day to Add/Drop. After this you can only drop with permission of instructor
Sept 15 Phytoplankton Productivity Chap. 10 & 15
Sept 17 Macroalgae & higher plants Chap. 6 & pp 286
295 Sept 22 Zooplankton (last day to add with permit #)
Sept 24 Marine Bacteria
Sept 29 Benthic Invertebrates Chap. 7
Oct 1 EXAM
Oct 6 Benthos, Corals & Hydrothermal vents Chap. 14
Oct 8 Estuaries Chap. 12
Oct 13 VideoDVD
Oct 15 Nekton I, Chap 8
Oct 20 Nekton II, (Last Day for CR/NCR option)
Oct 22 EXAM
Oct 27 Evolution of marine Organisms
Oct 29 The Deep Sea Chap. 16 Nov 3 Intertidal Zone & Beaches Chap. 11
Nov 5 Marine Mammals pp 187199 Nov 10 Marine Reptiles & Birds pp 182187
Nov 12 EXAM Nov 17 Harmful Algal Blooms
Nov 19 Marine Fisheries Chap. 17 (Last day to withdraw w/o documents)
Nov 2327,Fall Recess, no classes
Dec 1 Global Warming and World’s Oceans
Dec 3 Human Impact on the Sea Chap. 18
Dec 8 VideoDVD
Dec 10 Video DVD
Final Exam Tues Dec 15, 10:451:15 For CR/NCR you must receive at least a C to get CR. Extra credit is through good class attendance. There are 26 lectures. If you attend 2326 you receive 4 extra points in overall grade. If 2023, 3 pts, 1819, 2 pts. I’ll pass around a sign in sheet for each class. Put your signature (don’t print) next to your name. Bring a Scantron (882E) for exams. No one will be allowed to take an exam if they come more than 15 min late or arrive after the first person has finished and left the room. You can drop your lowest exam grade (but not the final). Final counts 30% of grade and the 3 during term exams count 23.3% each.
Because of the Furloughs (faculty pay cut 10%), we will only be able to give make up exams in exceptional cases (i.e. with written note from physician). Also because of the furloughs some classes will not be given but you are responsible for everything posted on iLearn.
Cheating on an exam results in an automatic F. Marine Biology differs from Marine Biology differs from Biological Oceanography
• Marine Biologists tend to study organisms living relatively close to shore. They also tend to study marine life from the perspective of the organism
• (i.e. how does the organism adapt to environment, or study basic physiology)
• Biological Oceanographers usually focus on life in the open ocean, far from land, plus they take the perspective of the ocean environment rather than the organism (i.e. how does salinity, temperature, nutrients etc. affect ocean productivity). Why study marine organisms?
Why study marine organisms?
• The volume of living space in the oceans is huge •
• relative to the terrestrial environment…area of oceans is 71% of earth’s surface and at least 99% of living volume on Earth. Average depth of the ocean is about 4000 meters (13,000 ft)! Commercially valuable as food, drugs, etc
Since the oceans are so vast, to understand life on the Earth, we must understand how life functions in the ocean as well as water circulation, chemistry and geology. The oceans affect us every day. For example, you can’t understand or predict Global Warming or weather unless you understand the biology, physics and chemistry of the oceans Reasons to study marine Reasons to study marine biology
• Life on earth probably originated in the sea
• Commercial Fisheries, Aquaculture, Macroalgae as food (Nori) and food •
Medicines from marine organisms
Fouling of ship bottoms, clog pipes
Coral reef islands
Produce about half the O2 we breathe
All petroleum came from marine phytoplankton
“Biological Pump” absorbs about 1/3 of fossil fuel generated CO2/year
Our weather is affected by ocean currents (El Nino, La Nina)
Marine organisms used to understand basic biology (endocrinology, embryology, neurobiology etc.) Historically, many ancient cultures gained knowledge of Historically, many ancient cultures gained knowledge of marine organisms. This is mainly because the seas were a source of food and navigation. • Aristotle (384327 BC) is said to be the first marine •
• biologist because of his studies on the anatomy of the Octopus and other organisms in Greek waters. He noted that some sharks give birth to live young.
Other cultures studied shellfish and fish because they were a food source. Navigators such as Polynesians who sailed from island to island partly used animal life in navigating.
However, in spite of this ancient knowledge, the science of marine biology is relatively young Early Marine Explorers
Early Marine Explorers
• Capt. James Cook in late 1700’s had naturalists • (Banks & Solander) on board and was the first European to see Antarctica, Hawaii and Tahiti. Named many tropical island plants.
Charles Darwin in 1830s sailed around the world for 5 years and was seasick almost all the time. Came up with theory as to how coral atolls formed The Challenger Expedition which started in The 1872 marks the beginning of real Marine Biological Research • Funded by the British Government, it was a 3.5 year voyage through all the world’s oceans Before the Challenger Expedition Before the Challenger Expedition there were many misconceptions about ocean life • It was though that below about 700 meters there • . was no life in the sea (called the Azoic Theory) because it was too cold and dark. This they deduced because number of benthic (bottom dwelling) organisms decreased with depth.
It was thought that what life there was in the sea was the same everywhere, but organisms just differed with depth. The Challenger Expedition The Challenger Expedition discovered thousands of new marine species.
• Showed that life existed in deepest depths of the ocean.
• Was the benchmark for marine research Today’s Space Shuttles
Today’s Space Shuttles
• Challenger, Discovery, Endeavor, Columbia, etc. named • after the early ocean exploration ships.
HMS Discovery, Capt. Cook’s ship The Challenger Expedition stimulated other The Challenger Expedition stimulated other governments to have oceanic expeditions
• Germans, Danes, French and others soon set out their own • expeditions
Marine Labs began to sprout up. The Stazione Zoologica in Naples Italy is the oldest in the world, started in 1872 Other labs started
Other labs started
• Plymouth England 1879
• Today, there are marine labs all over the world First American lab was in Woods First American lab was in Woods Hole on Cape Cod
• Marine Biological Lab 1888
• The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution also started there in 1930 West Coast Labs
West Coast Labs
• Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La •
• Jolla (UCSD)
Hopkins Marine Lab (Stanford University) in Monterey Bay
Moss Landing Marine Lab (Cal State system)
Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) (in Moss Landing)
Friday Harbor, (U. Washington)
Plus many others Cal State’s Moss Landing Marine Cal State’s Moss Landing Marine Lab. This lab is open to students from all Cal State Universities
• On Monterey Bay SFSU’s Romberg Tiburon Lab for SFSU’s Romberg Tiburon Lab for Environmental Science
• On Tiburon Peninsula in North Bay Many recent developments have Many recent developments have aided marine biological research
• Sonar, SCUBA, Deep Diving Subs, •
• (deepest 6500 m or 21,000 ft)
Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs)
Sophisticated Research Ships
Remote Sensing Satellites to measure ocean properties
Advances in molecular biological (DNA, RNA etc) research The ALVIN is a free diving submarine that The ALVIN is a free diving submarine that can reach 4500 meters depth and can bring marine organisms back to the surface where they can be studied Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are unmanned and operated from the mother ship. This one brought back a beer bottle. Typically bring back marine organisms for research The newest oceanographic ships are The newest oceanographic ships are very stable and allow sophisticated research to be conducted on board. Remote sensing satellites give new Remote sensing satellites give new perspectives on ocean biology
• Red = high chlorophyll from phytoplankton. Blue = low Today Ocean Observatories have been Today Ocean Observatories have been established in deep water to continuously monitor ocean conditions
• In Monterey Bay, for example, a 52 km ling fiber optic • cable sends back data from 900 m deep.
Has video, chemical sensors, and ROVs to observe deep water conditions. Let’s switch gears
Let’s switch gears
• Chapter 1 in Castro & Huber discusses the scientific method. What is it?
• This is a flexible framework of inquiry methods used by scientists
• The goal of science is to discover facts about the natural world and the principles that explain these facts First thing a scientist does is First thing a scientist does is observe nature
• This might be done using a microscope or • sampling and counting species of fish etc.
A scientist makes observations then uses induction to answer scientific questions and arrive at general principles. Induction uses separate observations to arrive at general principles. For example, if a scientist notes that sharks, tuna and sailfish all have gills he/she might conclude that all fish have gills. In contrast, reasoning from general In contrast, reasoning from general principles to specific conclusions is called deduction. • For example, you start with the statement “All fishes have gills”
• You would then conclude, since sharks are fish, that sharks have gills. Induction and deduction are used Induction and deduction are used to form a hypothesis
• A hypothesis is a statement that might be true
• A hypothesis is a guess about how things work. • Its validity can be tested. In fact in order to be a hypothesis, it has to be testable.
For example, by looking at water temperature records you would note that coral bleaching occurs when water temperatures are highest. You could hypothesize that high temperatures cause bleaching. A controlled experiment is used A to test a hypothesis
• A controlled experiment is one in which all •
• variables are the same except for one.
A control is a set of conditions in which no variable has been changed, and a scientist can then compare the change in one variable with the control.
To test your bleaching hypothesis you would have corals as “controls” at normal temperature and raise the temperature to your observed highs for the other corals and observe what happens. A theory is a concept of how things A work. It is a well tested hypothesis.
• Theories are based on facts
• For example, we have the theory of gravity, or Einstein’s theory of relativity, or Darwin’s theory of evolution.
• These are concepts of how things work based on observations of the natural world. A Theory is not an untested guess A Theory is about life on earth.
• Theories are based on facts and careful observations and experiments
• Don’t confuse a theory with a hypothesis Other aspects of the scientific Other aspects of the scientific method
• Scientist must publish his/her results in a peer •
• reviewed (other scientists pass judgment on quality of research) scientific journal
If scientific observations are not published and disseminated, those observations are worthless
Other scientists must be able to duplicate the original research findings
If they can’t be duplicated, probably bogus. Read Chapter 1 in Castro and Read Chapter 1 in Castro and Huber Many of you are in your first year at SFSU. My experience Many of you are in your first year at SFSU. My experience in teaching Marine Biology is that many students need advice on how to study • Where to Study
• Although studying in a dorm room is convenient, it • is often a poor place to learn. The dorm has a plethora of distractions including Blitzmail, Twitter, Snood, the telephone, video games, friends down the hall. Lying down on the bed to read turns into an hour long nap and a bright yellow highlighter spot on your sheets! If you want to improve your concentration and efficiency as a student, develop a place to study that is just that a place where you go to work on academics. The campus is full of good spots to study. Experiment with what works best for you. How to Study
How to Study
• Many students are surprised at the differences in studying for college •
• courses versus how they studied in high school. Regular worksheets are replaced by vast midterms and exams which require knowledge about concepts rather than simple memorization of facts. Students frequently discover they need to adapt their study habits to the college setting. Here are some tips for getting started:
Study in chunks: 2050 minute time periods followed by a brief break (510 minutes) is the most effective way to study Use daylight hours: an hour of studying during the day is worth two at night! Do the work that requires the most concentration (typically reading) earliest in the day. Rank your classes and be sure to spend time on your most challenging class everyday and early in the day. Study actively: ask yourself questions, review your notes regularly, discuss key concepts with peers and course professor Extra Credit
• For high attendance I’ll add 4 points to your class average, 3 for moderate attendance etc. Easy way to get extra credit!
A. Attend every lecture.
1. Everything you need to know will be covered in the lectures.
2. Go to lectures alert and awake.
3. Write down everything you can. Anything is fair game on the exam.
4. If you miss a lecture, get notes from at least 2 people.
B. Prepare for lectures.
1. Read the book!. day. C. Find a "Note Buddy".
1. Photocopy and swap your notes with someone after class every 2. Meet once a week and teach each other the notes Time Management
• A. Start early
1. Use the first 2 weeks of the term. Don't start snowballing.
2. Start studying for your next exam 2 days after your first •
• one. B. Set deadlines
1. Make a term calendar.
2. Set new deadlines. Have all your studying done 2 days prior to the exam. This gives you 2 days to review.
C. Find your "Bio Hour".
1. Spend an hour a day reviewing your notes; make it part of your daily routine.
a. Three 20 minute sessions throughout the day
b. 40 minutes reviewing notes, 20 minutes preparing for lectures. Test Preparation
• A. Condense the material.
1. Make flash cards over your notes.
2. Write out answers to your cards.
B. Reading should be supplementary.
1. Use the reading to supplement all concepts covered •
• in class. 2. Know all the figures that relate to the lecture.
C. Apply the material.
1. As you study, think of applications of the material.
2. Use old exams as guides to applying the material. Almost all of you are nonscience Almost all of you are nonscience managers
• The goal of Jessica and I is to try to make the ocean and life in it somehow relevant to you and to give you an understand of marine life that will be useful to you in the future.
• Enjoy! Study Guide
• Why Study the Oceans?
• Who was first Marine Biologist (sort of…history is a bit fuzzy here)?
• What Expedition marked the beginning of oceanographic research •
• and what did it accomplish?
Where is first marine lab in world and where first in USA? Where are west coast major marine labs?
What are some recent technological advances that have helped marine research?
Know how scientific method works and difference between inductive and deductive reasoning.
What is difference between hypothesis and theory?
Know how a controlled experiment is carried out. ...
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