MarBiolProductivity

MarBiolProductivity - Ocean Primary Productivity First...

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Ocean Primary Productivity First Trophic Level
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The Ocean is divided into different habitats Neritic is coastal, Oceanic is away from continental shelf (Oceanic starts when water is deeper than about 150-200 m) Vertically, the Epipelagic is the Euphoti c (lighted) zone Littoral Mesopelagic is the “twilight’ zone Bathypelagic is deeper aphotic (dark) zone Abyssopelagic is deep, dark, cold, high pressure zone
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Review: Virtually all energy for life in the sea comes from the sun (except in hydrothermal vents). Phytoplankton, macroalgae, seagrasses, marsh cordgrass (Spartina) and mangroves are the primary producers (1 st Trophic level) in the Ocean.
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Phytoplankton (microalgae) Macroalgae
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Seagrasses are flowering plants living in shallow areas
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Mangroves live in tropical areas along the shoreline where there is little wave action
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Spartina Marsh Cordgrass Abundant in calm estuaries
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Review: different classes of phytoplankton Cyanobacteria (blue green algae): prokaryotes, some can fix N 2 , very abundant in all oceans (except < 5C) Diatoms: eukaryotes, silicon covering, Dinoflagellates: 2 flagella, can vertically migrate, some bioluminesce Coccolithophores: 2 flagella, CaCO 3 coccoliths
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Marine Phytoplankton groups Cyanobacteria Diatoms Dinoflagellates Coccolithophores
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Phytoplankton size ranges Picoplankton : 0.2-2.0 um. Consist of cyanobacteria Synechococcus & Prochlorococcus. Bacteria also in this size range Nanoplankton 2–20 um. Mostly small eukaryotic phytoplankton Microplankton 20- 200 um. Larger diatoms & dinoflagellates. These also called “Net plankton” because they can be caught in plankton nets
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Plankton Net for collecting zooplankton and large phytoplankton Many sizes
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What limits photosynthesis in the sea? In some areas availability of light and in other areas availability of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and iron Light falling on the ocean’s surface is reduced very quickly with depth because of absorption by water and the particles in it. Phytoplankton are able to use only about 0.1% of the light energy hitting the sea surface because so much light is either absorbed by water or by other particles
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Photosynthesis usually ceases below the depth of the 1% light level. This is called the compensation depth and is the depth below which there is too little light for photosynthesis Thus, to take advantage of the light in the euphotic layer , phytoplankton must remain near the surface.
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the surface? Some Cyanobacteria have gas vesicles The smallest cyanobacteria don’t sink out because to them, water is like “molasses” Dinoflagellates and Coccolithophores have flagella, so they can swim vertically. Diatoms selectively excrete heavy ions
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course BIO 160 taught by Professor Dr.jonstern during the Fall '08 term at S.F. State.

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MarBiolProductivity - Ocean Primary Productivity First...

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