MarBiolZOOPLANKTON

MarBiolZOOPLANKTON - ZOOPLANKTON Animals with limited...

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ZOOPLANKTON Animals with limited ability to swim, usually of microscopic size An important link between the primary producer trophic level and higher trophic levels
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Review: What is a Trophic Level? The first trophic level consists of the “ primary producers ” and these are the phytoplankton and macroalgae which capture light energy from the sun The second trophic level are the herbivores which feed on the phytoplankton The third trophic level consists of carnivores , the animals which feed on the herbivores etc etc
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Zooplankton Holoplankton: organisms which spend their whole life as plankton Meroplankton: organisms which have only part of their life cycle in the plankton. An example is larvae of barnacles or crabs. Many benthic (bottom dwelling) organisms have part of their life cycle as meroplankton
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About 70% of benthic organisms have a planktonic stage Duration of the planktonic stage ranges from minutes to even years in some exceptional cases
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Barnacles attach themselves to something solid and spend their adult life there. In order to colonize other habitats, they have a planktonic larva which are part of the meroplankton
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Crabs have a zoea larvae Even though crabs can move, they still rely on a planktonic stage for dispersal
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Crab life cycle Planktonic stages let them spread to new areas.
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Lobster (left), Starfish (mid) and Oysters (Rt) also have larvae as part of the meroplankton. These larvae drift with the currents until they find a suitable place to settle.
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Benthic snails and clams produce a shelled veliger larvae
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Benthic polychaetes (worms) and mollusks produce a trochophore larvae suggesting that they have a common ancestor
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Developmental stages of larvae of Sea Urchins (an Echinoderm) Egg at elbow, planktonic larva on shoulder
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Zooplankton size ranges Microzooplankton 20-200 μm (mostly single celled protozoa) Mesozooplankton 200 μm-2 mm (mostly copepods) Macrozooplankton 2-100 mm (krill, jellyfish, etc)
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There are many diverse classes of zooplanktonic holoplankton Crustacea (copepods, krill, etc.) Cnidaria (siphonophores, medusa)(i.e. JELLYFISH) Molluscs (pteropods) Appendicularians Ctenophores (comb jellies)
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The Crustacea are members of the phylum Arthropoda. Examples of Crustacea are: lobsters, shrimp, copepods and crabs. The arthropods include 80% of all animal species on Earth and include spiders, scorpions, insects, mites, millipedes, centipedes etc.
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Crustaceans are invertebrates and have no backbone. Their body is supported and protected by an exoskeleton made of chitin
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arthropods)is made of a polysaccharide (many sugars linked together) called CHITIN In factories where crab and lobster meat was picked, the exoskeletons were thrown in the garbage. Today, uses have been found and clothing
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course BIO 160 taught by Professor Dr.jonstern during the Fall '08 term at S.F. State.

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MarBiolZOOPLANKTON - ZOOPLANKTON Animals with limited...

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