MARINE_BIOLOGY_First_examC_[1]

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Unformatted text preview: MARINE
BIOLOGY
First
exam,
Fall
2009






































































 
 NAME:______________________________





































































































































 C





















 
 1. 
Phytoplankton
are
 a. a
type
of
marine
plant
 b. a
type
of
marine
animal

 c. a
type
of
marine
mineral
 2. 
Diatoms
are
a
type
of
phytoplankton
with
glass
shells
made
of
silica.
 a. True
 b. False
 3. 

Examples
of
primary
producers
in
the
marine
environment
are
 a.) bacteria
b.)
phytoplankton
c.)
corals

d.)
macroalgae
e.)
both
 b
and
d
 
 
 4. 

Sea
water
freezes
at
a
temperature
lower
than
fresh
water.
 a.) true
 b.) false
 5. 

Most
submarine
trenches
are
located
in
the
Atlantic
 a. true
 b. b.)
false
 6. Where
on
the
Earth
does
most
of
the
surface
water
sink
down
into
deep
 water
and
then
become
the
source
of
deep
ocean
currents
?
a)
Off
Peru,
b)
Off
 the
coast
of
Chile,
c)
Off
Southern
Africa,
d)
Off
Iceland
and
Greenland,
e)
 none
of
the
above
 7. At
what
depth
under
a
wave
does
water
motion
from
the
wave
cease
a)
½
the
 wavelength,
b)
1/3
the
wavelength,
c)
2X
the
wavelength,
d)
10X
the
 wavelength,
e)
none
of
the
above
 
 
 
 8. In
photosynthesis,
sunlight,
CO2
and
water
are
used
to
make
glucose
for
 energy
for
the
plant.
What
is
given
off
by
the
plant
as
a
bi
product
a)
 hydrogen,
b)
silicon,
c)
oxygen,
d)
chlorophyll,
e)
all
of
the
above
 9. Among
the
phytoplankton,
which
group
are
prokaryotes
a)
diatoms,
b)
 dinoflagellates,
c)
coccolithophores,
d)
cyanobacteria,
e)
none
of
the
above
 10. 
What
group
of
very
small
phytoplankton
are
responsible
for
about
half
of
all
 photosynthesis
in
the
world’s
oceans
a)
diatoms,
b)
dinoflagellates,
c)
 radiolarians,
d)
Prochlorococcus
&
Synechococcus,
e)
none
of

the
above
 
 
 11. 
Which
color
of
light
penetrates
deepest
in
the
open
ocean?
a)

Red
 b)

Blue
c)

Green
d)

They
all
penetrate
the
same
e)

None
of
the
above
 12. 
The
pressure
at
40m
depth
is:
a)
40
atm
b)
4
atm
c)
5
atm
 d)
50
atm
e)

None
of
the
above
 
 13. 
Semidiurnal
tides:
a)

Are
the
predominant
tide
cycle
in
California
 b)

Result
in
a
tide
change
every
6
hours
c)

Have
uneven
highs
and
lows
 d)

a
and
c
e)

a
and
b
 
 14. 23.
As
waves
approach
the
shore:
a)

Wave
speed
increases


b)

Wave
height
 increases
c)

Wave
energy
increases

d)

Wavelength
increases
e)

b
and
c
 
 15. Characteristics
of
a
passive
continental
margin
include:
a)
Large
continental
 shelves
b)
Trench
formation
c)
High
geological
activity
d)
Plate
boundaries
e)
 None
of
the
above
 
 16. 
The
stratification
of
the
Earth’s
layers,
and
which
plate
ends
up
on
top
at
a
 subduction
zone,
depend
directly
on
this
characteristic
of
the
materials
 involved:

a)
Temperature
b)
Speed
of
convection
c)
Coloration
d)
Mineral
 type
e)
Density
 
 17. 
The
Richter
Scale
rates
earthquakes
based
on
the















of
the














of
the
 quake,
meaning
each
whole
number
interval
represents
a


‐fold
increase
in
 the
“size”
of
the
quake.
a)

Logarithm,
frequency,
10
b)

Amplitude,
timing,
 100
c)

Logarithm,
amplitude,
10
d)

Exponential,
amplitude,
100
e)

 Frequency,
shudder,
2
 
 
 18. “Hot
spots”:a)

Are
warm
water
pockets
in
areas
with
a
permanent
 thermocline
b)

Are
areas
where
magma
has
pushed
through
the
lithosphere
 c)

Can
form
new
island
chains
d)

a
and
b
e)

b
and
c
 19. A
guyot
is:
a)

A
submarine
canyon
b)

An
area
of
high
earthquake
risk
 c)

A
migratory
coastal
bird
d)

A
flat‐topped
seamount
e)

None
of
the
above
 
 20. 
Trenches
form
at
areas
of
plate
convergence
(or
subduction)
and
ridges
 form
at
places
of
plate
divergence.
 a.
True
 b.
False
 
 21. 
A
halocline
is
a
zone
of
rapid
temperature
change.
 a. True
 b.False
 
 22. Organic
compounds
principally
contain
the
elements
 a. Carbon,
Oxygen,
Hydrogen
 
 b. Zinc,
Chlorophyll,
Carbon
 c. Carbon,
Iron,
Berkelium
 
 
 23. 

An
organism
that
drifts
on
current
in
the
water
column,
and
does
not
 actively
swim
or
live
on
the
bottom
of
the
ocean
is
called
 a. Benthos
 b. Plankton
 c. Nekton
 24. A
__________________

circulates
air
or
water
due
to
temperature
or
density
 differences
 a. Pycnocline

 b. Secchi
disk
 c. Convection
cell


 25. 
El
Nino
events:
a)

Cause
a
reversal
of
wind
and
water
current
direction
b)

 Stimulate
upwelling
c)

Occur
once
a
year
d)

All
of
the
above
e)

a
and
b
only
 26. 
Rainforests
tend
to
occur:
a)

In
areas
with
warm
rising
air
b)

Between
 Hadley
and
Ferrel
cells
c)

In
areas
where
warm
moist
air
moves
landward
 from
the
ocean
d)

a
and
b
e)

b
and
c
 
 
 
 27. Coastal
upwelling:
a)

Tends
to
occur
on
the
West
coasts
of
continents
 b)

Is
a
result
of
Ekman
transport
c)

Brings
cold
water
to
the
surface
 d)

All
of
the
above
e)

None
of
the
above

 28. Surface
current
gyres:
a)

Move
counter‐clockwise
in
the
Northern
 Hemisphere
b)

Result
from
thermohaline
circulation
c)

Are
caused
by
the
 gravitational
pull
of
the
moon
d)

Move
the
same
direction
in
both

 hemispheres
e)

None
of
the
above
 29. Along
the
California
coast,
the
Pacific
Plate
and
the
continental
plate
have
 banged
into
each
other
and
the
Pacific
plate
is
subducting
(going
under)
the
 continental
plate.
Why
is
it
going
under?
a)
because
the
crust
in
the
ocean
is
 lower
than
the
crust
on
land,
b)
because
the
oceanic
crust
is
denser
than
the
 continental
crust,
c)
because

the
oceanic
crust
is
colder,
d)
none
of
the
above
 
 
 30. 
Ekman
transport
moves
water:
a)

At
a
90º
angle
to
the
wind
direction
b)

 Opposite
the
wind
direction
c)

In
spiraling
eddies
d)

All
of
the
above
e)

 None
of
the
above
 31. 
The
Coriolus
Force
results
from:
a)

Convection
cells
between
the
poles
and
 equator
b)

The
spinning
of
the
Earth
c)

Hadley
cells
d)

All
of
the
above
e)

 None
of
the
above
 
 
 32. 
Sediments
in
sea
floor
regions
near
a
mid‐ocean
ridge
are













than
those
 far
from
mid‐ocean
ridges:
a)
younger

b)
thicker
c)
older
d)
thinner
e)
a
and
 d
 
 
 
 33. Oceanic
crust
is
composed
of












,
whereas












makes
up
most
of
the
 continental
crust.















a)

felsite,
quartz
b)

granite,
basalt
c)

basalt,
felsite
 d)

basalt,
granite
e)

None
of
the
above
 34. 
Open
ocean
regions
over
continental
shelves
are
termed:
 a) oceanic
b)

planktonic
c)

neritic
d)

pelagic
e)

benthic
 35. Lithogenous
sediments
in
the
ocean
arise
due
to:
a)

wind‐blown
desert
dust
 b)

weathering
of
rocks
c)

river
transport
d)

None
of
the
above
e)

All
of
the
 above
 
 
 36. 
Biogenic
sediments
come
mainly
from:
a)

Runoff
of
terrestrial
plant
 material
 b)

Plankton
c)

Decomposing
whale
carcasses
d)

Wind‐blown
desert
dust
 e)

None
of
the
above
 
 37. 
Water
is
an
excellent
solvent
because
it:
a)

Is
a
polar
molecule
b)

Forms
 hydrogen
bonds
c)

Has
high
surface
tension
d)

All
of
the
above
e)

None
of
 the
above
 
 
 
 38. 
The
“latent
heat
of
melting
or
of
vaporization”
is
the:
a)

Heat
contained
by
a
 body
of
water
b)

Heat
contained
by
a
volume
of
gas
c)

The
heat
needed
to
 pass
between
physical
states
d)

All
of
the
above
e)

None
of
the
above
 39. Tropical
waters
tend
to
be
nutrient
poor
because:
a)

There
is
very
little
 animal
life
in
the
tropics
b)

There
is
a
permanent
thermocline
c)

Lots
of
 upwelling
occurs
but
this
water
is
nutrient
deprived
d)

The
water
is
 vertically
isothermal
e)

a
and
d
 40. 
Practical
Salinity
Units
are
equivalent
to:
a)

Milligrams
of
salt
per
milliliter
 b)

Grams
of
salt
per
liter
c)

Parts
per
thousand
d)

None
of
the
above
e)

All
 of
the
above
 
 
 
 41. 16.
Seasonal
salinity
changes
are
most
pronounced
in:
a)

Arctic
waters
b)

 Areas
of
high
rainfall
c)

Areas
of
high
evaporation
d)

Rivers
e)

Tidepools
 42. 
The
term
pycnocline
refers
to:
a)

The
region
right
below
the
thermocline
 b)

An
area
of
rapid
density
change
c)

An
area
of
rapid
salinity
change
 d)

Large
ocean
circulation
current
e)

None
of
the
above
 43. 
CO2
is
only
0.04%
of
air
but
in
seawater
it
can
be
80%
of
gasses
mainly
 because:
 a) There
is
more
photosynthesis
in
the
ocean
than
on
land
 b) CO2
is
deposited
in
the
ocean
to
mitigate
climate
change
 effects
 c) Hydrothermal
vents
release
CO2
 d) CO2
readily
reacts
with
seawater
allowing
high
 dissolution
 e) Acid
rain
deposits
lots
of
CO2
into
the
oceans
 
 
 
 
 44. 
Monterey
Canyon
was
formed
by:
a)

An
underwater
landslide
b)

A
river
 during
a
period
of
lower
sea‐level
c)

Strong
river‐mouth
currents
d)

A
 strong
earthquake
 e)

None
of
the
above
 45. Nitrogen
fixation
is
the
conversion
of
gaseous
nitrogen
to
ammonia
which
 then
can
be
used
to
make
amino
acids
and
proteins.
In
the
ocean,
what
group
 of
organisms
can
fix
nitrogen
a)
cyanobacteria,
b)
foraminifera,
c)
tintinnids,
 d)
diatoms,
e)
zooplankton
 46. What
group
of
phytoplankton
is
used
to
make
dynamite
a)
cyanobacteria,
b)
 dinoflagellates,
c)
coccolithophores,
d)
Synechococcus,
e)
diatoms
 47. Why
do
some
dinoflagellates
bioluminesce?
a)
to
attract
a
mate,
b)
to
be
able
 to
see,
c)
to
startle
a
predator,
d)
nobody
knows,
e)
as
a
way
of
releasing
 excess
energy
 
 48. What
formed
the
White
Cliffs
of
Dover
a)
coccolithophores,
b)
dinoflagellates,
 c)
diatoms,
d)
cyanobacteria,
e)
zooplankton
 
 49. What
is
a
big
advantage
that
dinoflagellates
have
over
other
phytoplankton
 groups
a)
they
can
fix
nitrogen,
b)
they
have
gas
vesicles
for
buoyancy,
c)
 they
have
a
silaceous
shell
for
protection,
d)
they
can
swim
to
deep
water
at
 night
and
take
up
nutrients,
e)
none
of
the
above


 
 50. 
Marine
Biologists
study
sea
life
from
the
perspective
of
the
animal
while
 Biological
Oceanographers
study
sea
life
from
the
perspective
of
the
ocean
 environment.
 a.
True
 b. False
 
 1.
a
 
 True
 
 
 2.
True
 10.
D
 11.
B
 21.
False
 31.
B
 32.
E
 42.
B
 43.
D
 3.
E
 12.
C
 22.
A
 33.
D
 44.
B
 4.
True
 13.
B
 14.
B
 23.
B
 24.
C
 34.
C
 35.
E
 45.
A
 46.
E
 5.
False
 15.
A
 16.
E
 25.
A
 26.
A
 36.
B
 37.
A
 47.
C
 48.
A
 6.
D
 17.
C
 27.
D
 38.
C
 49.
B
 7.
A
 8.
C
 18.
E
 19.
D
 28.
E
 29.
B
 39.
B
 40.
E
 50.
True
 9.
D 20.
 30.
A 41.
A 
 
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