THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Blood Cells Cells of...

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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
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Blood Cells
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Cells of the Immune System White Blood Cells Phagocytes - Neutrophils - Macrophages Lymphocytes
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Phagocytes Produced throughout life by the bone marrow. Scavengers – remove dead cells and microorganisms.
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Neutrophils 60% of WBCs ‘Patrol tissues’ as they squeeze out of the capillaries. Large numbers are released during infections Short lived – die after digesting bacteria Dead neutrophils make up a large proportion of puss.
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Macrophages Larger than neutrophils. Found in the organs, not the blood. Made in bone marrow as monocytes , called macrophages once they reach organs. Long lived Initiate immune responses as they display antigens from the pathogens to the lymphocytes.
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Macrophages
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Phagocytosis
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Phagocytosis If cells are under attack they release histamine. Histamine plus chemicals from pathogens mean neutrophils are attracted to the site of attack. Pathogens are attached to antibodies and neutrophils have antibody receptors . Enodcytosis of neutrophil membrane phagocytic vacuole. Lysosomes attach to phagocytic vacuole pathogen digested by proteases
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Lymphocytes Produce antibodies B-cells mature in bone marrow then concentrate in lymph nodes and spleen T-cells mature in thymus B and T cells mature then circulate in the blood and lymph Circulation ensures they come into contact with pathogens and each other
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B -Lymphocytes There are c.10 million different B- lymphocytes, each of which make a different antibody. The huge variety is caused by genes coding for abs changing slightly during development. There are a small group of clones of each type of B-lymphocyte
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B -Lymphocytes At the clone stage antibodies do not leave the B- cells. The abs are embedded in the plasma membrane of the cell and are called antibody receptors. When the receptors in the membrane recognise and antigen on the surface of the pathogen the B-cell divides rapidly. The antigens are presented to the B-cells by macrophages
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B -Lymphocytes
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B -Lymphocytes Some activated B cells PLASMA CELLS these produce lots of antibodies, < 1000/sec The antibodies travel to the blood, lymph, lining of gut and lungs. The number of plasma cells goes down after a few weeks Antibodies stay in the blood longer but eventually their numbers go down too.
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B -Lymphocytes Some activated B cells MEMORY CELLS . Memory cells divide rapidly as soon as the
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 100 taught by Professor Staff during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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THE IMMUNE SYSTEM - THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Blood Cells Cells of...

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