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# lec1 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 16.323...

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Unformatted text preview: MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 16.323 Principles of Optimal Control Spring 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms . 16.323 Lecture 1 Nonlinear Optimization • Unconstrained nonlinear optimization Line search methods • Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. Spr 2008 16.323 1–1 Basics – Unconstrained • Typical objective is to minimize a nonlinear function F ( x ) of the parameters x . – Assume that F ( x ) is scalar x = arg min x F ( x ) ⇒ • Define two types of minima: – Strong : objective function increases locally in all directions A point x is a strong minimum of a function F ( x ) if a scalar δ > exists such that F ( x ) < F ( x + Δ x ) for all Δ x such that < Δ x ≤ δ – Weak : objective function remains same in some directions, and increases locally in other directions Point x is a weak minimum of a function F ( x ) if is not a strong minimum and a scalar δ > exists such that F ( x ) ≤ F ( x + Δ x ) for all Δ x such that < Δ x ≤ δ • Note that a minimum is a unique global minimum if the definitions hold for δ = ∞ . Otherwise these are local minima.-2-1.5-1-0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 x F(x) Figure 1.1: F ( x ) = x 4 − 2 x 2 + x + 3 with local and global minima June 18, 2008 Spr 2008 16.323 1–2 First Order Conditions • If F ( x ) has continuous second derivatives, can approximate function in the neighborhood of an arbitrary point using Taylor series: F ( x + Δ x ) ≈ F ( x ) + Δ x T g ( x ) + 1 Δ x T G ( x )Δ x + ... 2 ⎡ where g ∼ gradient of F and G ∼ second derivative of F ∂ 2 F ∂ 2 F ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ T ∂F ∂x 2 1 ··· ∂x 1 ∂x n x 1 ⎥ ⎦ ,G = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ ∂x 1 ∂F ⎢ ⎣ . . . ⎣ ⎦ . . . . . . . . . . . x = , g = = . ∂ x ∂ 2 F ∂ 2 F ∂F ∂x n ∂x n ∂x 1 ··· ∂x 2 n x n • First-order condition from first two terms (assume Δ x 1 ) – Given ambiguity of sign of the term Δ x T g ( x ) , can only avoid cost decrease F ( x + Δ x ) < F ( x ) if g ( x ) = 0 ⇒ Obtain further information from higher derivatives – g ( x ) = 0 is a necessary and suﬃcient condition for a point to be a stationary point – a necessary, but not suﬃcient condition to be a minima. – Stationary point could also be a maximum or a saddle point. June 18, 2008 Spr 2008 16.323 1–3 • Additional conditions can be derived from the Taylor expansion if we set g ( x ) = 0 , in which case: 1 F ( x + Δ x ) ≈ F ( x ) + Δ x T G ( x )Δ x + ... 2 – For a strong minimum, need Δ x T G ( x )Δ x > for all Δ x , which is suﬃcient to ensure that F ( x + Δ x ) > F ( x ) . – To be true for arbitrary Δ x = 0 , suﬃcient condition is that G ( x ) > (PD)....
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lec1 - MIT OpenCourseWare http/ocw.mit.edu 16.323...

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