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Stamp 2 views accidents as a control problem eg oring

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Unformatted text preview: ys to Cope with Complexity (con’t.) Statistics Treat as a structureless mass with interchangeable parts. Use Law of Large Numbers to describe behavior in terms of averages. Assumes components sufficiently regular and random in their behavior that they can be studied statistically. · Ë ý ·  À Ê » Å ¹ º É ¹ ¸ È Ç · Å µ Æ ¶ Å µ ´ c à  µ Á · À ¿ · Ë ÿ ·  À Ê » Å ¹ º É ¹ ¸ È Ç · Å µ Æ ¶ Å µ ´ à c  µ Á · À ¿ What about software? Too complex for complete analysis: Separation into non−interacting subsystems distorts the results. The most important properties are emergent. Too organized for statistics Too much underlying structure that distorts the statistics. Systems Theory Developed for biology (Bertalanffly) and cybernetics (Norbert Weiner) For systems too complex for complete analysis Separation into non−interacting subsystems distorts results Most important properties are emergent. and too organized for statistical analysis Concentrates on analysis and design of whole as distinct from parts (basis of system engineering) Some properties can only be treated adequately in their entirety, taking into account all social and technical aspects. These properties derive from relationships between the parts of systems −− how they interact and fit together. · Ë ¼ ·...
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