042204autosystem

042204autosystem - The Coming Transition in Automobile...

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The Coming Transition in Automobile Cockpits - Insights from Aerospace Prof. R. John Hansman Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics
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Evolution of Cockpit Displays
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Software Growth in Aircraft B757/767-200 B777-200 B747-400 B747-200 0 25000 50000 75000 100000 125000 150000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Year Total Airplane Signals, Digital, Analog Words Empirical Data Extrapolation FBW Correction Software size doubles every 18 months Compensating for “FBW offset” reduces doubling to 33 months
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Hypothesis We are entering a period of significant change in automobile Human-Machine Interaction driven by Information Technologies Automobiles will undergo a change more substantial than the change in aircraft from steam gauge” to “ glass cockpits”
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Car / Aircraft Comparison Market Capital investment (ROI) Consumer product Number of vehicles (US) 300,000 200,000,000 Safety (US) 663 fatalities (1998) 41,000 fatalities (1997) Threat response time constant Order 5-60 sec. Order 1 sec. Hazard density Low, 3-D collision (vehicle, terrain, animal), WX High, 2-D collision (vehicle, object, person, animal, …) System complexity High Med/low
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Car / Aircraft Comparison (cont.) Operator selectivity/training/medical High Low Tracking precision (Heading) Order 5° Order 1° Recurrent training Yes No Operations procedure Yes No Impaired operators (Alcohol, Drugs) Order 1/10 7 -10 9 Order 1/10 4 5
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Aerospace Systems Applicable to Cars Control systems ABS Stability augmentation Fly by Wire/Light (FBW,FBL) Integrity Concerns (eg 777) Critical software systems Fault tolerant systems Head up displays (HUD) Helmet mounted displays (HMD) Synthetic Vision Systems Sensor Fusion Hands on throttle and stick (HOTAS) Dark cockpit Navigation systems GPS, DGPS IRS/GPS Situation awareness displays Moving map Database Caution and Warning Systems Collision Alerting Systems Tactile alerting Stick shaker Master caution Information accessibility Maintenance Diagnostics
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Example:Phase Carrier Differential GPS in Automobiles High Precision (5 cm) Demonstrated in UAV Applications Slip Angle Measurement Dual Antenna Performance Evaluation Preliminary Testing Issues High Dynamic Environment High “Jerk” States With Prof. Jon How Dept of Aeronautics & Astronautics
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Track Hardware Layout • Two 2 GPS antennas were mounted on the car to form a single baseline • Data-Linc Group (SRM6000) Modem antenna also attached to roll bar – Real-time communication with ground station
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MIT Run Results
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Typical Performance Relative position error • Precise state determination – 2 - 5 cm position error – 1 - 2 cm/s velocity error – 1 - 2 degrees heading – @ 5 - 10 Hz
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Track Results - Slip Measurements •Car heading and velocity vectors not aligned
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Track Results -Slip Measurements
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Comparative Lap Results Attachment converted: John's G3 Laptop:vel_comp_jph_rjh.jpg (JPEG/JVWR) (00010F90)
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Acceleration vs Position
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“Human Centered” Information Requirements Analysis • Integrated Human Centered Systems Approach • “Semi-Structured” Decision Theory • Driver Distraction Analysis
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042204autosystem - The Coming Transition in Automobile...

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