050404nucprocont

050404nucprocont - 16.422 Human Supervisory Control Nuclear...

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16.422 Human Supervisory Control Nuclear and Process Control Plants
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Process Control Plants 16.422 Continuous or batch processing Examples: Electricity generation (nuclear power plants), refineries, steel production, paper mills, pasteurization of milk Characterized by: – Large scale, both physically and conceptually –Comp lex High risk High automation
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16.422 Three Mile Island •M a r c h 2 8 th , 1979 Main feedwater pump failure, caused reactor to shut down Relief valve opened to reduce pressure but became stuck in the open position No indication to controllers Valve failure led to a loss of reactant coolant water No instrument showed the coolant level in the reactor Operators thought relief valve closed & water level too high High stress Overrode emergency relief pump
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Three Mile Island 16.422 Automation worked correctly Confirmation bias: people seek out information to confirm a prior belief and discount information that does not support this belief – At TMI, operators selectively filtered out data from other gauges to support their hypothesis that coolant level was too high
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Process Control Human Factors Challenges 16.422 Control room design Increasing automation requires cognitive support as opposed to manual control support Human-machine interface design Team decision making Standardized procedures vs. innovation Trust & confidence
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Supervisory Process Control Tasks 16.422 • Monitor process • Counter disturbances, faults, & abnormalities • Operating procedures must be followed • Communications – A log must be kept – Other team members (shift changes) • Emergency procedures • Training and retraining
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16.422 Cognitive Demands When Monitoring Process Control Plants • Vigilance – Continuous vs. time share – Active vs. passive monitoring •M e m o r y • Selective attention • Visual attention/perception • System complexity • System reliability – Critical vs. non-critical components
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Cognitive Demands, cont. 16.422
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050404nucprocont - 16.422 Human Supervisory Control Nuclear...

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