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Unformatted text preview: NOTICE: THIS MATERIAL MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT LAW 138 Notes on the State of Virginia age, when they should be colonized to such place as the circumstances ‘of the time should render most proper, sending them out with arms, implements of houshold and of the handicraft arts, seeds, pairs of the useful domestic animals, &c. to declare them a free and independant people, and extend to them our alliance and protection, till they shall have acquired strength; and to send vessels at the same time to other parts of the world for an equal number of white inhabitants; to induce whom to migrate hither, proper encouragements were to be proposed. It will probably be asked, Why not retain and incorporate the blacks into the state, and thus save the expence of supplying, by importation of white settlers, the vacancies they will leave? Deep rooted prejudices entertained by the whites; ten thousand recollections, by the blacks, of the injuries they have sustained; new provocations; therealkdistinc- tions which nature has made; and many other circumstances, will divide us into parties, andconvulsions which will probably never end but in the extermination of the one or the other race—To these objec- tions, which are political, may be added others, which are physical and moral. The first__diflerence which strikes us is that of colour. Whether the black the negro resides in the reticular membrane between the skin and scarf—skin, or in the scarf—skin itself; whether it proceeds from the colour of the blood, the colour of the bile, or from that of some other secretion, the difference is fixed in nature, and is as real as if its seat and cause were better known to us. And is this difference of no importance? Is it not the foundation of a greater or less share of beauty in the two races? Are not the fine mixtures of red and white, the expressions of every passion by greater or less suffusions of colour in the one, preferable to that ~stern,alwnionqtgny, which reigns in the countenances, that immgyeablefiveil of ,black‘which covers all the emo— tions of the other race? Add to these, flowing hair, a more elegant sym— metry of form, their own judgment in favour of the whites, declared by their preference of them, as uniformly as is the preference of the Oran-ootan for the black women over those of his own species. The circumstance of superior beauty, is thought worthy attention in the propagation of our horses, dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that of man? Besides those of colour, figure, and hair, there are other physical distinctions proving a difference of race. They have less hair (TITLE 17, us. CODE) Law: 139 on the face and body. They secrete less by the kidnies, and more by the glands of the skin, which gives them a very strong and disagreeable "Edgy; This greater degree of transpiration renders them more tolerant iof heat, and less so of cold, than the whites. Perhaps too a difference of structure in the pulmonary apparatus, which a late ingenious experi— mentalist7 has discovered to be the principal regulator of animal heat, may have disabled them from extricating, in the act of inspiration, so much of that fluid from the outer air, or obliged them in expiration, to part with more of it. They seem to require less sleep. A black, after hard labour through the day, will be induced by the slightest amuse— ments to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the first dawn of the morning. They are at least as brave, and more adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from a want of fore- thought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present. When present, they do not go through it with more coolness or steadiness than the whites. They are more ardent after their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation}3 Their griefs are transient. Those numberless afflictions, which render it doubtful whether heaven has given life to us in mercy or in wrath. are less felt, and sooner forgotten with them. In general, their existence appears to participate more of sensation than reflection. To this must be ascribed their disposition to sleep when abstracted from their diversions, and unemployed in labour. An a ' Mil whose body is at rest, and who does not reflect, must be dis- posed to sleep of course. Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investiga- tions of Euclid; and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. It would be unfair to follow them to Africa for this investi— gation. We will consider them here, on the same stage with the whites, and where the facts are not apocryphal on which a judgment is to be formed. It will be right to make great allowances for the difference of condition, of education, of conversation, of the sphere in which they move. Many millions of them have been brought to, and born in America. Most of them indeed have been confined to tillage, to their 140 N ate: on the State of Virginia , own homes, and their own society: yet many have been so situated, I that they might have availed themselves of the conversation of their masters; many have been brought up to the handicraft arts, and from that circumstance have always been associated with the whites. Some have been liberally educated, and all have lived in countries where the arts and sciences are cultivated to a considerable degree, and have had before their eyes samples of the best works from abroad. The Indians, with no advantages of this kind, will often carve figures on their pipes not destitute of design and merit. They will crayon out an animal, a plant, or a country, so as to prove the existence of a germ in their minds which only wants cultivation. They astonish you with strokes of the most sublime oratory; such as prove their reason and sentiment strong, their imagination glowing and elevatedi;~ But never yet9 could I find that a black had uttered a thought above the level of plain narration; never see even an elementary trait of painting or sculpture. In music they are more generally gifted than the whites with accurate ears for tune and time, and they have been found capable of imagining a small catch.10 Whether they will be equal to the composition of a more exten- sive run of melody, or of complicated harmony, is yet to be proved. Misery is often the parent of the most affecting touches in poetry.— « “Among the blacks is misery enough, God knows, but no poetry. Love if is the peculiar oestrum of the poet. Their love is ardent, but it kindles the senses only, not the imagination. Religion indeed has produced a i Phyllis Whately;11 but it could not produce a poet. The compositions published under her name are below the dignity of criticism. The heroes of the Dunciad are to her, as Hercules to the author of that poem. Ignatius Sancho12 has approached nearer to merit in compOSi— tion; yet his letters do more honour to the heart than the head. They breathe the purest effusions of friendship and general philanthropy, and shew how great a degree of the latter may be compounded with strong religious zeal. He is often happy in the turn of his compliments, and his stile is easy and familiar, except when he aflects a Shandean .i fabrication of words. But his imagination is wild and extravagant, escapes incessantly from every restraint of reason and taste, and, in the course of its vagaries, leaves a tract of thought as incoherent and eccen- tric, as is the course of a meteor through the sky. His subjects should Law: 141 often have led him to a process of sober reasoning: yet we find him always substituting sentiment for demonstration. Upon the whole, though We admit him to the first place among those of his own colour who have presented themselves to the public judgment, yet when we compare him with the writers of the race among whom he lived, and particularly with the epistolary class, in which he has taken his own stand, we are compelled to enroll him at the bottom of the column. This criticism supposes the letters published under his name to be genuine, and to have received amendment from no other hand; points which would not be of easy investigation. The improvement of the blacks in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by every one, and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely of their condition of life. We know that among the Romans, about the Augustan age especially, the condition of their slaves was much more deplorable than that of the blacks on the conti- nent of America. The two sexes were confined in separate apartments, because to raise a child cost the master more than to buy one. Cato, for a very restricted indulgence to his slaves in this particular, took from them a certain price.13 But in this country the slaves multiply as fast as the free inhabitants. Their situation and manners place the com- merce between the two sexes almost without restraint.—~The same Cato, on a principle of (economy, always sold his sick and superannuated slaves. He gives it as a standing precept to a master visiting his farm, to sell his old oxen, old waggons, old tools, old and diseased servants, and every thing else become useless. “Vendat boves vetulos, plaustrum vetus, ferramenta, vetera, servum senem, servum morbosum, & si quid aliud supersit vendat.”” The American slaves cannot enumerate this among the injuries and insults they receive. It was the common practice to expose in the island of ZEsculapius, in the Tyber, diseased slaves, whose cure was like to become tedious.15 The Emperor Claudius, by an edict, gave freedom to such of them as should recover, and first declared, that if any person chose to kill rather than to expose them, it should be deemed homicide. The exposing them is a crime of which no instance has existed with us; and were it to be followed by death, it would be punished capitally. We are told of a certain Vedius Pollio, who, in the presence of Augustus, would have given a slave as food to 142 N ate: on the State of Virginia his fish, for having broken a glass.16 With the Romans, the regular method of taking the evidence of their slaves was under torture. Here it has been thought better never to resort to their evidence. When a master was murdered, all his slaves, in the same house, or within hear— ing, were condemned to death. Here punishment falls on the guilty only, and as precise proof is required against him as against a freeman. ~ Yet notwithstanding these and other discouraging circumstances among the Romans, their slaves were often their rarest artists. They excelled too in science, insomuch as to he usually employed as tutors to their mas- ter’s children. Epictetus, (Diogenes, Phaedon), Terence, and Phxdrus, were slaves. But they were of the race of whites. It is not their condi— tion then, but nature, which has produced the distinction—Whether further observation will or will not verify the conjecture, that nature has been less bountiful to them in the endowments of the head, I believe that in those of the heart she will be found to have done them 'ustice. That disposition to theft with which they have been branded, . must be ascribed to their situation, and not to any depravity of the moral sense. lThe man, in whose favour no laws of property exist, prob- ably feels hiriisélf less bound to respect those made in favour of others.‘ When arguing for ourselves, we lay it down as a fundamental, that laws, to be just, must give a reciprocation of right: that, without this, they are mere arbitrary rules of conduct, founded in force, and not in conscience: and it is a problem which I give to the master to solve, _ whether the religious precepts against the violation of property were ‘ not framed for him as well as his slave? And whether the slave may i not as jusitfiably take a little from one, who has taken all from him, as he may slay one who would slay him? That a change in the rela— tions in whichya man is placed should change his ideas of moral right and wrong, is new, nor peculiar to the colour of the blacks. Homer tells us it was so 2600 years ago. ’ prv, yag‘ r’ (’zpe'rr’ls droalvv'im. ebpi'JQ'rra Zeb: ’AVEpos, em" i’iu uw Kan}. «Sahel! fiuag‘ 'éknaw. 0d. I7. 323. Iove fix’d it certain, that whatever day Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away.” But the slaves of which Homer speaks were whites. Notwithstand— ing these considerations which must weaken their respect for the laws ~ w~=<mmw-~ » w 7 Y, my? «a... mm— .“ a... w an... r...” ya...w,....,om,’m.,mww 7 - Laws 143 of property, we find among them numerous instances of the most rigid integrity, and as many as among their better instructed masters, of ; benevolence, gratitude, and unshaken fidelity.—The opinion, that they are inferior in the faculties of reason and imagination, must be hazarded with great diflidence. To justify a general conclusion, requires many observations, even where the subject may be submitted to the Anatomi- cal knife, to Optical glasses, to analysis by fire, or by solvents. How much more then where it is a faculty, not a substance, we are examin- ing; where it eludes the research of all the senses; where the conditions of its existence are various and variously combined; where the effects of those which are present or absent bid defiance to calculation; let me I add too, as a circumstance of great tenderness, where our conclusion 1 would degrade a whole race of men from the rank in the scale of beings _ which their Creator may perhaps have given them. To our reproach it. must be said, that though for a century and a half we have had under our eyes the races of black and of red men, they, have never yet been. viewedubynus as subjects of natural history. 1 advance it thereforeas a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstancesgare inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind. It is not against experience to suppose, that different species of the same genus, or varieties of the same species, may possess different qualifications. Will not a lover of natural history then, one who views the gradations in all the races of animals with the eye of philosophy, excuse an effort to keep those in the department of man as distinct as nature has formed them? This unfortunate difference of colour, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful obstacle to the emancipation of these people. Many of their advocates, while they wish to vindicate the liberty of human nature, are anxious also to preserve its dignity and beauty. Some of these, embarrassed by I the question “What further is to be done with them?” join themselves in opposition with those who are actuated by sordid avarice only. Among the Romans emancipation required but one effort. The slave, ‘ when made free, might mix with, without staining the blood of his master. But with us a second is necessary, unknown to history. When freed, he is to be removed beyond the reach of mixture. "M’— "l" TthéVisédEEdEr'fiifEHEr proposes to proportionscrimes and punish- rnents.18 This is attempted on the following scale. Q U E RY XVIII. Manners a (I The particular custom: and manner: that may happen to be received in that state? a nation may be tried, Whether catholic, or particular. It is more difficult for a native to bring to that standard the manners of his own nation, familiarized to him by habit. There must doubtless be an unhappy influence on the manners of our people produced by the exist- ence of slavery among us.1 The whole commerce between master and slave is a perpetual exercise of the most boisterous passions, the most unremitting despotism on the one part, and degrading submissions on the other. Our children see this, and learn to imitate it; for man is an imitative animal. This quality is the germ of all education in him. From his cradle to his grave he is learning to do What he sees others do. If a parent could find no motive either in his philanthropy or his self-love, for restraining the intemperance of passion towards his slave, it should always be a sufficient one that his child is present. But generally it is not sufficient. The parent storms, the child looks on, catches the linea— ments of wrath, puts on the same airs in the circle of smaller slaves, gives a loose to his worst of passions, and thus nursed, educated, and daily exercised in tyranny, cannot but be stamped by it with odious peculiarities. The man must be a prodigy who can retain his manners and morals undepraved by such circumstances. And with what execra— tion should the statesman be loaded, who permitting one half the citi— zens thus to trample on the rights of the other, transforms those into 162 I T is difficult to determine on the standard by which the manners of Manners 163 despots, and these into enemies, destroys the morals of the one part, and the amor patriae of the other. For if a slave can have a country in this world, it must be any other in preference to that in which he is born to live and labour for another: in which he must lock up the faculties of his nature, contribute as far as depends on his individual endeavours to the evanishment of the human race, or entail his own miserable con— dition on the endless generations proceeding from him. With the morals of the people, their industry also is destroyed. For in a warm climate, no man will labour for himself who can make another labour for him. This is so true, that of the proprietors of slaves a very small proportion indeed are ever seen to labour. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a convic- tion in the minds of the people that these liberties are of the gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with his wrath.P2 Indeed I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just: that his justice cannot sleep for ever: that considering numbers, nature and natural means only, a revolution of the wheel of fortune, an exchange of situa- tion, is among pOSsible events: that it may become probable by super— natural interference! 3 The Almighty has no attribute which can take side with us in such a contest.——But it is impossible to be temperate and to pursue this subject through the various considerations of policy, of morals, of history natural and civil. We must be contented to hope they will force their way into every one’s mind. I think a change already per- ceptible, since the origin of the present revolution. The spirit of'the master is abating, that of the slave rising from the dust, his condition mollifying, the way I hope preparing, under the auspices of heaven, for a total emancipation, and that this is disposed, in the order of events, to be with the consent of the masters, rather than by their extirpation. ...
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