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l17_page_king_sm - Distributed Coordination and Control...

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c Distributed Coordination and Control Experiments on a Multi­UAV Testbed by Ellis T. King Bachelor of Engineering The State University of Buffalo, 2002 Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY September 2004 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2004. Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics August 20, 2004 Certified by. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jonathan P. How Associate Professor Thesis Supervisor Accepted by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jaime Peraire Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics Chair, Committee on Graduate Students
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Chapter 2 Hardware In the Loop Modeling and Simulation The hardware­in­the­lo op (HWIL) simulation is only useful if it accurately portrays the vehicle dynamics and if the behaviors observed during flight tests can be repli­ cated on the ground. This chapter focuses on identifying some of the dynamical modes of flight for the 60 ARF Trainer aircraft, and verifying that the HWIL sim­ ulations reflect the dynamics expected from the aircraft being employed. Reduced order models for 4 of the 5 dynamical modes are determined for the trainer ARF 60 aircraft using identification techniques on experimental flight data and analytical predictions based on aircraft geometry and aerodynamic data. Section 2.1 describes the simulation settings used to create the hardware­in­the­lo op (HWIL) simulations, and Section 2.2 details the procedures used to create models of the aircraft dynam­ ics from data collected during flight tests and hardware­in­the­lo op simulations. In Section 2.3, the Cloud Cap autopilot is tuned for the trainer ARF 60 aircraft and the closed loop response for several of the modes is measured using the HWIL simulator. 2.1 Hardware in the loop simulations 2.1.1 Aircraft simulation Model Parameters Aerodynamic, inertial and engine calibration information is provided to the Cloud Cap HWIL simulation application to model the aircraft being flown. For simply 31 ±
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(a) The Clark YH airfoil geometry. −5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 α [deg] C L C D (b) The Clark YH airfoil lift and drag curves. Figure 2­1: The Clark YH airfoil closely resembles the airfoil used on the trainer ARF 60 aircraft and is used to model wing aerodynamics. configured aircraft such as the tower trainer 60 ARF used in the testbed, many of the performance characteristics can be obtained using the geometry of the aircraft, such as the data found in Table 2.1. Detailed descriptions of the surface geometry, wing lift curves, and engine performance curves enable simulations of the aircraft under realistic flight conditions, providing the input parameters are configured accurately.
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