Chapter 2, Research Methods

Chapter 2, Research Methods - Chapter 2 Chapter Research...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Chapter Research Methods in Psychology Chapter Two Overview Chapter Critical Thinking Obstacles to Good Decision Making The Process of Research Psychological Measurement Ethical Issues in Human and Animal Ethical Research Research Becoming a Critical Consumer of Becoming Research Research Psychological Sciences Require Psychological Critical Thinking Critical Science progresses carefully and often Science slowly, and good science takes time. slowly, The ability to think skeptically is often The referred to as critical thinking, a critical systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable conclusions. in 3 Sources of Information Sources Authority Reason Observation Elements of Critical Thinking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Differentiating between fact and opinion Differentiating fact Recognizing and evaluating author bias and Recognizing author rhetoric rhetoric Determining the difference between causeDetermining causeeffect and correlation Determining the accuracy and completeness of Determining accuracy information presented information Recognizing logical fallacies and faulty Recognizing reasoning reasoning Making judgments and drawing conclusions Making drawing 5 Obstacles To Good Decision Making Decision Illusory Correlation Correlation vs. Causation Confirmation Bias Framing the Question Fixation Availability Belief Perseveration Illusory Correlation Illusory When two things seem to When go together, or even be causally related… but aren’t aren’t Childhood Childhood vaccinations and autism and Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles CORRELATION vs. CAUSATION CORRELATION Just because two events occur together doesn’t Just mean one causes the other mean There are three possibilities A causes B: Causation (but consider other causes variables!) variables!) B causes A: Direction of effect opposite C causes both: Third variable Why is this a problem? Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles #3 CONFIRMATION BIAS Seeking out evidence that confirms our eeking hypotheses instead of disconfirmation. hypotheses #4 FRAMING THE QUESTION FRAMING Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles How you word a question is critical. Are condoms effective? “Condoms have a 95% success rate in Condoms preventing AIDS.” (9 out of 10 college students say yes) “Condoms have a 5% failure rate.” (4 out of 10 Condoms say they are effective) say Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles #5 FIXATION FIXATION We only see things the way we are used to seeing them seeing We fail to see other possibilities For example Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles #6 AVAILABILITY BIAS #6 Judgment based on available memories. Judgment We remember those things that support our We hypotheses. hypotheses. Airplane crashes Winning the lottery Seen as more common that actually are Obstacles To Good Decision Making: Obstacles #7 BELIEF PERSEVERATION #7 We cling to beliefs in spite of evidence to We contrary contrary Students who were pro and con on death Students penalty were both given same set of mixed evidence about the efficacy of the death penalty death Both solidified their pre-existing Both positions positions Types of Research Designs Types Experimental Method Controls relevant variables Allows for causal inferences Correlational Methods Do not allow for causal inferences Suggests variables that are related and may be Suggests causally linked causally Descriptive Design Report demographic or other descriptive data without Report making inferences making The Process of Research The Step 1 Initial phase of research, in which Initial observations, beliefs, information, and general knowledge lead to a new idea or a different way of thinking about some phenomenon way Theory An organized set of concepts that explains a An phenomenon or set of phenomena phenomenon Psychologists use theories to formulate Psychologists research questions research The Process of Research The Concept of Determinism The doctrine that all events — physical, The behavioral, and mental — are “determined” by specific causal factors that are potentially knowable knowable The Process of Research The Step 2 Develop a hypothesis Hypothesis: A tentative and testable explanation of Hypothesis: the relationship between two (or more) events or variables variables Step 3 Use the scientific method to design the study The Process of Research The Scientific Method Set of procedures used for gathering and Set interpreting objective information in a way that minimizes error and yields dependable generalizations generalizations Its goal is to draw conclusions with maximum Its objectivity objectivity Conclusions are objective when they are not Conclusions influenced by emotions or personal biases influenced The Process of Research The A Challenge to Objectivity Observer Bias Distortion of evidence because of the personal Distortion motives and expectations of the viewer motives The Process of Research The Observer Bias: The Remedy Standardization A set of uniform procedures for treating each set participant participant Operational definition Defined in terms of the specific operation or Defined procedure used to determine its presence procedure All variables in a research study must be given All operational definitions operational The Process of Research The Research Variables Variables are factors in an experimental Variables setting that change in amount and kin setting Independent Variable Dependent Variable Researchers manipulate an independent Researchers variable to look at its effect on a dependent variable Goes beyond mere correlation to determine Goes causation causation Research Variables Research Independent Variable A factor that is manipulated by the researcher The causal part of the relationship Dependent Variable A variable that the experimenter measures to variable assess the impact of a variation in an independent variable independent The dependent outcome that is observed from The the manipulation of the independent variable the Experimental Method Experimental The Challenge to Objectivity Alternative explanations to research These can result from These Confounding variables Expectancy effects Placebo effect The more alternative explanations for a given The result, the less confidence there is for an initial hypothesis hypothesis Experimental Method Experimental Confounding Variable Confounding A variable other than what the experimenter variable purposely introduced that affects a participants behavior participants Confounding variables add confusion and Confounding place the interpretation of the data at risk place Experimental Method Experimental Expectancy Effects Expectancy Results that occur when a researcher or Results observer subtly communicates to the participants the kind of behavior he or she expects, therefore, creating the expected reaction and/or outcome reaction Experimental Method Experimental Placebo Effect Occurs when the experimental participants Occurs change their behavior in the absence of any kind of experimental manipulation kind In Rats? Experimental Method: Experimental Remedies to Challenges to Objectivity Control Procedures Consistent procedures for giving instructions, Consistent responses, and holding all other variables constant except those being systematically varied varied Double-blind control Placebo control Between-subjects designs Within-subjects designs Experimental Method: Experimental Remedies to Challenges to Objectivity Double-blind Control Experimental procedure in which both the Experimental experimenter and the subject are unaware as to who received the treatment to Experimental Method: Experimental Remedies to Challenges to Objectivity Placebo Control The inclusion of an experimental condition in The which the treatment is not administered which Experimental Method: Experimental Remedies to Challenges to Objectivity Between-subjects Design Different groups of participants are randomly Different assigned to experimental conditions or to control conditions control Within-subjects Design Each participant is his or her own control Experimental Method: Experimental Remedies to Challenges to Objectivity Sample: Subset of a population selected as Subset participants in an experiment participants Representation Sample: A subset of the population being studied Population: Entire set of individuals to which Entire generalizations will be made based on an experimental sample experimental Sampling Error Sampling When the subjects of a study don’t When adequately represent the population adequately Generalizability What happens when your sample ISN’T What representative?... representative?... Correlational Methods Correlational Correlational Methods Determine to what extent two variables, traits, Determine or attributes are related or Do NOT imply causation Correlational Coefficient (r) Indicates the degree of relationship between Indicates two variables two Psychological Measurement Psychological Reliability Degree to which a test produces similar Degree scores each time it is used scores Stability, consistency Validity Extent to which a test measures what it Extent was intended to test was Psychological Measurement Psychological Self-report Measures Questionnaires and surveys Behavior identified through a participant’s own Behavior observations and reports observations Likert Scale Questions Likert Indicate how positively or negatively you feel about Indicate these sexual behaviors: these Sex between unmarried persons when the couple Sex is only casually acquainted is 5 = strongly approve 4 = approve somewhat 3 = neither approve nor disapprove 2 = disapprove somewhat 1 = strongly disapprove Issues/problems with Self-Report Methods Self-Report Self-Report Methods Easy to administer and low in cost Problems: Self-Report Bias Reluctance to supply personal information Socially-desirable responding Problem of “response set” Psychological Measurement Psychological Behavioral Measures Overt actions and reactions that are observed Overt and recorded and Direct observations The behavior is clearly visible and is easily The recorded recorded Can be aided by technology Naturalistic observations Naturally occurring behavior is viewed without Naturally attempting to change or interfere attempting Measuring responses to stimuli Measuring Response Performance A research method in which researchers research quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus response Basic ways to quantify response Basic performance performance Reaction time Response accuracy Stimulus judgments Measuring Responses to Stimuli Reaction time tasks Psychological Measurement Psychological Archival Data Information taken from existing records Information Examples include birth and death records, weather reports, voting patterns, and attendance figures attendance Case Study Intensive observation of a particular individual Intensive A case study can also involve an intensive observation of a small group of individuals small Case Studies Case Characteristics Intensive examination of one person Subject is typically unusual Subject Problems Problems Difficulty isolating the real causes Researcher lacks control over Researcher person’s life and events person’s Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Must protect participants rights Institutional Review Boards consider: Informed Consent Risk/Gain Assessment Intentional Deception Debriefing Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Informed Consent Research participants are asked to sign Research statements indicating they have been informed as to the potential risks and benefits of the study and consent to participate consent Risk/Gain Assessment Risks to the participants must be minimized, Risks especially in studies of more personal aspects of behavior behavior Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Intentional Deception For some research it is not possible to tell For participants the intention of the study without biasing the results biasing American Psychological Association has strict American rules on the use of deception rules Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Debriefing At the end of all studies each participant must be At provided with as much information about the study as possible as Ethical Issues in Research Ethical Issues in Animal Research Should animals be used in psychological and Should medical research? medical Descriptive statistics Descriptive provide a summary provide Measures of Central Measures Tendency Tendency Mean Median Mode Measures of Measures Variability Variability Range Standard Deviation Both groups have the same mean but very different range and S.D. W. W. Norton Inferential statistics Inferential Inferential statistics Inferential Used to decide whether differences actually Used exist between different sets of numbers exist Significant vs non-significant differences Establishes how likely a difference between 2 Establishes groups exists merely because of chance chance Effect Size Effect Often more useful than statistical Often significance significance Tells us how large the difference is Tells how The difference between these 2 groups is statistically significant, but so is the difference between… These two groups! However, the effect size above is larger than the effect size below Recap of Chapter 2 Main Points Recap The Process of Research Observer Bias and Operational Definitions Experimental Methods Controls Correlational Methods Psychological Measurement Reliability and Validity Self Report Observations Recap of Chapter 2 Main Points Recap Ethical Issues in Human and Animal Ethical Research Research Informed Consent Deception & Debriefing Animal Research Becoming a Critical Consumer of Becoming Research Research ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Forss during the Fall '10 term at GWU.

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