Chapter 11, Sexuality

Chapter 11, Sexuality - Chapter Eleven Chapter Sexuality...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Eleven: Chapter Sexuality SEX SEX The Nature vs. Nurture debate & sex drive Biology: Genes, Hormones Environment: Culture encourages male, Culture discourages female sexual expression discourages A robust finding about men, women and sex Men want more sex, sooner, more often, with more Men people, & more likely to do it by themselves than women women Which best explains this difference? Sexual Behaviors Sexual Non-Human Sexual Behaviors Androgens Estrogen Pheromones Biological Factors Influence Sexual Behavior Sexual Behavior Hormones affect sexual development Hormones and sexual motivation and Testosterone, Oxytocin, Pheremones Neurotransmitters Dopamine, Serotonin Sexual Behaviors Sexual Human Sexual Arousal and Response Sexual Arousal Motivational state of excitement and tension Motivational brought about by physiological and cognitive reactions to erotic stimuli reactions Masters and Johnson Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution Physiological sex differences Genetic determination Mother contributes X chromosome Girl: Father contributes X chromosome Boy: Father contributes Y chromosome Internal sex organs (gonads) Females: ovaries Males: testes External sex organs are visible genitalia 6 weeks gestation: Identical Male and Female reproductive systems Female Differentiation of sex organs Differentiation following hormonal influence Physiological sex differences Androgen insensitivity syndrome Androgens are necessary for Androgens development of male genitalia development Failure of androgen receptors to Failure function leads to anatomical female function Birth with ambiguous genitalia Gender and Gender roles Gender Gender Culturally constructed differences Culturally between males and females between Gender roles Culturally accepted behaviors that differ Culturally between men and women between Children develop expectations about gender Children through observing adults, peers, and the media media Gender and Gender Identity Gender identity Gender Whether you think of yourself as male or female Complex function of biological, social, and Complex cultural influences cultural Androgyny Having both masculine and feminine traits Gender schemas Cognitive structures influencing how people Cognitive perceive gender-related behaviors Cultural Scripts and Rules Shape Sexual Interactions Shape Interactions Sexual scripts (a type of schema) are cognitive beliefs about how a sexual episode should be enacted episode Sexual Double Standard Variety and number of sexual partners, Variety losing virginity losing Sex differences in sexual motives Sexual Behaviors Sexual Evolution of Sexual Evolution Behaviors Behaviors Parental Investment David Buss Mating Strategies Differ between Mating the Sexes the Both men and women seek Both attractive mates who are kind, attractive honest, and good-natured honest, In searching for mates, men are In more concerned with appearance and women with status and Sexual strategies theory Mating strategies Mating Sexual strategies theory Evolutionary theory Men and women look for different qualities in Men a relationship relationship Women’s basic strategy Intensive care to a relatively small number of Intensive offspring offspring This leads to relatively high selectivity for This mates mates Mating strategies Mating Men’s basic strategy Maximize the number of offspring Find healthy, fertile mates Both sexes want physically attractive Both mates, but they differ mates, Females prefer indications of commitment Females and ability to provide and Men value attractiveness (an indication of Men health), cooking skills, and sexual faithfulness faithfulness In one study, students were approached by another student of the opposite sex, who said: opposite “I have been noticing you around campus. I find have you very attractive.” you This was followed by one of three invitations: Would you go out with me tonight?” or “Would you come over to my apartment?” or “Would you go to bed with me?” Buss Forced Choice measure of Sexual vs. Emotional Jealousy Sexual “Think of a serious committed relationship you have Think had in the past or that you currently have Imagine that you discover that the person with whom you have been seriously involved became interested in someone else. Which would be more distressing?” someone Imagining your partner falling in love with Imagining that other person that Imagining your partner having passionate Imagining sexual intercourse with that person. sexual Buss, et al. (1992) Sexual Infidelity versus Deep Emotional Infidelity Sexual vs. Emotional Upset 90 80 70 60 50 % 40 30 20 10 0 Sexual Emotional Men Women Sexual Orientation and Sexual vs. Emotional Jealousy Emotional Percent More Upset by Sexual Infidelity 60 40 20 0 Het Men Het Women Gay Men Lesbians Heterosexual men more Heterosexual likely choose sexual infidelity as more upsetting than gay men or women Gay men, lesbians, and heterosexual women did not differ significantly from each other from Sexual Orientation Sexual Prevalence Milestones & Experiences “Coming Out” Biological Influences Social & Cultural Influences Your Comments Sexual Orientation Sexual Refers to the sex or sexes one is romantically, Refers sexually and emotionally attracted to sexually Exists independently from biological sex, Exists gender, gender identity, and gender role gender, Common measure, “the Kinsey Scale” 7 point range of sexual attraction “0” = exclusively heterosexual “6” = exclusively homosexual The Study of Sexuality: Sexology The Alfred Kinsey Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) Female (1953) Edward O. Laumann and Edward colleagues’ 1994 study of sexual ehavior sexual Homosexual Prevalence: Men Men Kinsey et al Kinsey (1948) (1948) Laumann et Laumann all (1994) a Homosexual Identity 10% 2.8% Engage in Same Sex Engage Behavior Behavior 10-17% 9% Same-sex Same-sex Fantasy/Desire Fantasy/Desire 25-40% 6% Homosexual Prevalence: Women Women Kinsey et al Laumann et al Kinsey Laumann (1953) (1994) (1953) (1994) Homosexual Identity 1.5% 1.4% Engage in Same Sex Engage Behavior Behavior 3-5% 5% 10-20% 5.5% Same-sex Same-sex Fantasy/Desire Fantasy/Desire Same-Sex Activity & Orientation Same-Sex Laumann et al., 1994 Coming Out Coming The process of disclosing one’s gay or The bisexual orientation to oneself and others bisexual Coming Out is a key developmental issue for GLB persons for Hiding, passing First Experiences: First Men/Women (Gay Youth Center) Men/Women Males Males Females Same-sex Same-sex Attraction Attraction 9.6 10.1 Same-sex Same-sex Fantasy Fantasy 11.2 11.9 Same-sex Same-sex Experience Experience 13.1 15.2 First Disclosure 16.0 16.0 Current cultural changes Current Increased public acceptance Gay culture into the mainstream Gay Gay rights era started with the Stonewall Gay Rebellion in 1969 Rebellion 1973 declassified as mental illness Age of First Disclosure (Coming Out) is Age decreasing for younger GLB’s (Floyd & Bakeman, 2006; Grov, Bimbi, Nanin & Parsons, 2006) Etiology: Less behavioral or psychoanalytic, Etiology: more biological more Gay marriage and parenting key issues Etiology of Homosexuality: Etiology Nature vs. Nurture What makes people gay, What straight, or whatever? straight, Sexual Behaviors Sexual Homosexuality Nature and nurture of homosexuality Daryl Bem Etiology of Homosexuality: Etiology Biological Influences Strong evidence of biological component Hamer, et al. (1995) found genetic material on X Hamer, chromosome linked to gay male ID chromosome Levay (1991) found difference in size of Levay hypothalamus b/w gay and heterosexual men b/w Girls with CAH (congenital adrenohyperplasia) more Girls CAH likely to ID as lesbian likely MZ/DZ twin research: Identical twins more likely the Identical DZ, more likely than non-twins to be concordant for gay/lesbian ID gay/lesbian Etiology of Homosexuality: Etiology Social and Cultural Influences “Gay Identity” as a social construct Gay social Stereotypes enforce roles for feminine men, masculine women men, Cultural differences in expression Homophobia, heterosexism marginalize heterosexism gays and lesbian gays Isolation, depression, suicide risk appear Isolation, elevated in GLB youth elevated Nurture: Shapes a pre-existing genetic Nurture: propensity propensity Etiology of Homosexuality Etiology Theories with little or no merit Psychoanalytic “absent father, domineering Psychoanalytic mother” mother” Peer group/availability model Peer Inappropriate Sex Role Training Inappropriate Frustration model Learning models of reward & punishment Learning conditioning conditioning Abuse model The State of the Research on Sexual Orientation and the Nature Nurture Question Question The preponderance of evidence suggests that The biology and genetics – Nature - are key in Nature determining sexual orientation determining Society, upbringing, the environment – Nurture – Society, Nurture appear to determine the wide variety of expressions of sexual orientation (phenotypes) observed in human culture. observed It is important to make the distinction between It sexual orientation and sexual behavior sexual sexual Class Responses to Nature/Nurture Question Question ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Forss during the Fall '10 term at GWU.

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