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Chapter 12, Emotions, Stress & Health

Chapter 12, Emotions, Stress & Health - CHAPTER 12...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 12 EMOTIONS AND HEALTH 1 Emotions Are Adaptive: Facial Expressions Infants communicate emotions from birth Display of emotions alters behavior of observers Smiles can avert attack Display rules and gender Cultural norms about how and when emotions are exhibited Gender differences: especially for smiling and crying 2 Facial Expressions Are facial expressions culturally universal? Paul Ekman & Wallace Friesen: Cross­cultural agreement in identification of facial expressions The New Guinea study Basic expressions: Anger, Fear, Disgust, Happiness, Contempt Sadness, & Surprise 3 Emotions serve Cognitive Functions Mood and cognition interact Moods can alter ongoing mental processing We see “ugly house”, not just a “house” Decision making Affect­as­Information Theory: mood influences evaluation Somatic Marker Hypothesis: “gut feelings” influence decisions 4 Emotions strengthen Interpersonal Relations Emotions are evolved mechanisms Facilitate social behaviors “Guilt is good!” Guilt strengthens social bonds Helps prevent harmful behaviors Demonstrates caring Can be manipulated to control others’ behavior 5 Emotions strengthen Interpersonal Relations Jealousy Signals emotional commitment Sparks passion and commitment Protects genetic interests Common cause of spousal/partner abuse and homicide Embarrassment & blushing Represent submission to social group Show recognition of social error 6 How People Experience Emotions Section Outline: Subjective Component Physiological Component Cognitive component 7 Research on emotional experience Types of emotions Primary: evolved, universal, specific physiology Anger, Fear, Sadness, Disgust, Happiness Also (maybe): Surprise, Contempt Secondary: “blends” of primary emotions 8 Too much or too little emotion Mood Disorders Excessively strong emotions Alexithymia No experience of emotions Damage to prefrontal cortex 9 Theories of Emotion Physiological Component Traditional View of Emotions: Situation Emotion Bodily response Exam Fear Sweaty Palms, fast heart rate Emotional state precedes physiological reaction James­Lange theory Physiological state precedes emotional state Each emotion has a specific pattern of bodily responses 10 10 James­Lange Theory 11 11 W. W. Norton Cannon­Bard Cannon­Bard Theory Simultaneous and independent emotional feeling and physical response Subcortical processing precedes awareness 12 12 Cannon­Bard theory 13 13 W. W. Norton Cognitive Appraisal Theories Schachter’s Two Factor Theory Arousal: the physiological response Emotional Label: cognitive interpretation Emotional experience results from the interaction of physiological arousal and cognitive label 14 14 Schachter­Singer theory 15 15 Schachter and Singer Experiment 16 16 W. W. Norton Cognitive Appraisal Theories Misattribution of arousal Emotional label derived from a wrong source Dutton and Aron’s Bridge Experiment Participant aroused due to fear More likely to be romantically attracted to interviewer Excitation transfer Physiological arousal caused by one event transferred to new stimulus 17 17 People Regulate Their Moods Humor promotes mental and physical health Suppression and Rumination are mistakes Distraction The best way to deal, but.. Can be problematic 18 18 3. Neurophysiology of emotion Section Outline: Amygdala Orbitofrontal cortex Emotion systems are lateralized 19 19 Neurophysiology of emotion Autonomic Activity Polygraphs Lying causes anxiety Anxiety can be detected through changes in ANS activity Polygraphs are poor tests of truth telling False positives are not uncommon and they can be tricked (false negatives) 20 20 Polygraph: Lie detector 21 21 W. W. Norton The amygdala Emotion­related functions Processes emotional significance Generates emotional and behavioral reactions Kluver­Bucy syndrome Caused by removal of amygdala (research animals) Produces unusual behaviors: hypersexuality, fearlessness, putting objects in their mouth Removal of Amygdala in humans ­ deficits in responses to emotional cues. Fear harder to classically condition 22 22 fMRI studies & the amygdala Amygdala: Emotional facial expressions Especially sensitive to intensity of fear in faces Damage to amygdala Difficulty interpreting facial expressions Fail to use facial expression information to make interpersonal judgments 23 23 24 24 W. W. Norton The Limbic System Orbitofrontal Cortex Emotion­related functions Processes potential reward value of situations and objects Helps process emotional cues, especially social cues Damage to orbitofrontal cortex Inappropriate social behavior Insensitivity to emotional expressions of other people Sometimes excessive aggression 25 25 Asymmetry of emotions in brain Cerebral asymmetry Unequal activation in left and right frontal lobes associated with emotions Greater right prefrontal activity Negative affect Lower motivation Greater left prefrontal activity Positive affect Higher self­confidence Greater effort to achieve goals 26 26 Right amygdala: more active viewing unpleasant pictures 27 27 Sex Differences Cahill study of memory for emotional films Women: greater activity in left amygdala Men: greater activity in right amygdala 28 28 Divided faces: Right hemisphere interprets facial expressions 29 29 W. W. Norton 4. Coping with Stress Section Outline: General Adaptation Syndrome Stress in daily life Stress and health Coping is a process 30 30 Coping and Stress Stressor An environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism Coping response Any response by an organism to avoid, escape from, or minimize an aversive stimulus “Fight­or­flight” response Physiological preparedness to deal with danger 31 31 Physiological Stress reaction Physiological Stress reaction Acute Stress Clear onset and offset patterns Chronic Stress Continuous state of arousal Demands are greater than are available resources There Are Sex Differences in There Response to Stressors Response to Shelley Taylor’s “tend-and-befriend” Shelley model questions the cross-sex generality of the “fight-or-flight” model of model Females have low testosterone and high Females oxytocin oxytocin Oxytocin may promote nurturing Oxytocin behaviors during stressful periods behaviors 33 33 General Adaptation Syndrome Hans Selye Three stages Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Stress activates the HPA axis Hypothalamic­pituitary­adrenal axis Adrenal gland releases hormones that initiate the fight­or­flight response 34 34 Three stages of physiological response to threat 35 35 W. W. Norton HPA axis: neuroendocrine response 36 36 W. W. Norton Stress in daily life Major life stressors Changes or disruptions that strain central areas of life: Catastrophes (earthquakes) Life changes (new job, new home) Losses (death, being fired) Daily hassles Low level irritations that slowly drain resources: traffic, waiting in line, eating at J Street, etc. Chronic stress Sustained unemployment, overworking 37 37 Stress affects health Chronic stress: Negative health impact Associated with onset & progress of diseases Challenge versus Threat Both are motivational states Challenge demands do not exceed resources Threat demands outweigh resources 38 38 Effect on Immune System Stress alters immune functioning Sustained release of Cortisol affects immune system Psychological factors creates stress Psychoneuroimmunology Study of the immune system’s response to psychological variables Factors influencing stress Intensity Novelty Predictability 39 39 Stress and likelihood of catching a cold 40 40 W. W. Norton Coping is a Process Primary appraisals Where decisions are made about whether a stimulus is stressful or not Secondary appraisals Evaluate response options for coping behaviors 41 41 Types of Coping Anticipatory Coping Emotion­focused coping: Trying to avoid having an emotional response to a stressor Problem­focused coping: Taking direct steps to solve problems 42 42 Coping with Stress Modifying Cognitive Strategies Reappraising: Positive Reappraisal Focusing on “good things” Downward comparison Creation of positive events Restructuring Stress Inoculation Donald Meichenbaum Perceived Control Coping with Stress Social Support as a Coping Resource Socioemotional support Tangible support Informational support Positive Psychology Goal is to provide people with knowledge and skills that allow them to experience fulfilling lives Benefit finding Posttraumatic growth Health Psychology Health General condition of the body and mind in terms of soundness and vigor The Field of Health Psychology Ways people stay healthy Reasons they become ill Ways they respond when they become ill Biopsychosocial Model Traditional Health Practices Hozho Biopsychosocial Model Link between nervous system, immune system, behavioral styles, cognitive processing, environmental styles Wellness Optimal health Health Promotion Health Promotion General strategies and specific tasks to eliminate or reduce the risk that people will get sick Health Promotion Smoking Stages of Quitting Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Smoking Often Begins in Childhood Begins Modeling affects Modeling smoking; many adolescent smokers show a falseshow consensus effect By 12th grade, 70% of adolescents have tried tobacco products but less than half of those become smokers become Nicotine dependence Nicotine maintains smoking and may be mediated by dopamine paths by 50 Exercise Exercise Promotes cardiovascular and immunological health Helps prevent some cancers Strengthens synaptic connections Promotes neurogenesis Facilitates cognitive performance and mental health 51 Health Promotion AIDS HIV AIDS Interventions Information Motivation Behavioral Skills Treatment Patient Adherence Harnessing the mind to heal the body Relaxation response Biofeedback Psychoneuroimmunology Psychological impact on health outcomes Stress affects health Personality and heart disease Type A personality: Competitive, achievement oriented Type B Personality: Noncompetitive, relaxed Type A more likely than Type B to Develop heart disease Have high cholesterol Have high blood pressure Smoke 54 54 Job Burnout Job Burnout Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization Reduced personal accomplishments Nine year­round resolutions Never say bad thing about yourself Use constructive criticism Gauge appropriateness of your response against suitable social norms Have several close friends Work at expanding and maintaining social support networks Develop a sense of balanced time perspective Take full credit for your successes and happiness Remove yourself from the situation when you feel you are losing control See failure and disappointments as opportunities Seek professional help when needed Cultivate healthy pleasures Emotions Basic Emotions and Culture Theories of Emotion Functions of Emotion Stress and Living Physiological Stress Reactions Psychological Stress Reactions Coping with Stress Positive Effects of Stress Health Psychology Biopsychosocial Model of Health Health Promotion Treatment Personality and Health Job Burnout and the Health­Care System A Toast to Your Health Taking Care of Mind and Body Eat natural foods Watch portion size Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all Keep active Don’t smoke Practice safe sex Learn to relax Learn to cope Build a strong social support network 60 60 ...
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