Chemistry 101-page5

Chemistry 101-page5 - Glycogen -The polysacchardie energy...

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o Composed of glucose and fructose. - Maltose o A prepared food sweetnener. o Derived from starch. o Composed of two glucose molecules. - Lactose o Used in drug formulations and infant formulas. o Derived from milk. o Composed of glucose and galactose. Saccharin: First artificial sweetener, non digestible, bitter after tase. Aspartame: Made form two amino acids, digestible, similar caloric content to preotein but very little is needed, not stable at cooking temperatures. Splenda: Made from a disaccharide (sucrose) with 3 chlorines replacing hydroxyl groups as noted to the left. Polysaccharides - The 3 most abundant polysaccharides are starch, glycogen, and cellulose. - Can have more than 5000 monosaccharide units and molar masses greater than 1 million. - Most common monosaccharide unit is glucose. Starches - Most abundant is amylose (25%) - Amylose is water soluble. - Amylose is a condensation polymer of about 60-300 (average 200) glucose units.
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Unformatted text preview: Glycogen -The polysacchardie energy reservoir stored in the liver and amuscle of animals. Similar to starch but with branches. Cellulose -Most abundant organic compound on earth! -Similar to amylose but the orientation of the linkages is slightly different which makes it non-digestible for humans but still digestible for termites and ruminant animals like cows, goats, sheep and camels where bacteria in their guts supply the enzyme need to break it down. Lipids -Lipids are classified by the solubility not their structure. -Alipid is not soluble in a polar solvent like water but in non-polar organic solvents. -Fats, oils, steroids and waxes are all insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents and are thus lipids. Fats and oils are triglycerides which are tri-esters formed from glycerol and faty acids....
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