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Unformatted text preview: The First Americans • Beringia- the land bridge o 20,000 years ago the Earth was a lot cooler than it is today o Glaciers covered all of Canada down to what is now the American Mid- West o Water levels shrank Exposed land bridge that connected Russia and Alaska o Named Beringia after the Bering Sea o Later moved down from Alaska into the continental United States • Hunter and gatherers • Did not remain in one place • Did not have towns • Searched for animal herds, vegetables, and berries • Survived mainly on wheat, supplemented with fruits and vegetables • Survived off of buffalo, horses, and camels • Hunted horses, camels, and wooly mammoths to extinction before realizing they could be used as transportation • The Clovis Hunters o Their arrowheads were found in Clovis, New Mexico o Hunted the animals in the area to extinction o Run buffalo over a cliff to kill them • Agricultural Revolution o First occurred in the Americas in central Mexico in around 2,000 B.C. o Word spreads north into what is now United States, takes 500 years o Causes natives to stop traveling around and being hunters and gatherers o Live near the fields where they plant their own crops o Live off the land o Begin living in villages • Anasazi o Live in the area known as the “four corners” New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado o Build large brick and stone cities into the sides of cliffs for protection from other tribes 4-5 cities o Use snow melt to irrigate their crops 500 miles of irrigation ditches o Lived on three main vegetables, the “three sisters” Beans Corn Squash o Around 1200 A.D. soil began to lose its nutrients and crops begin to fail and a drought hits the region Had to abandon their city and break up into smaller tribes • More manageable populations • Cahokia o Mound builders o Live along the Mississippi River and its tributaries in what is now Ohio, Indiana, and Missouri o Sun worshippers Believed the sun gave life and should be worshipped o Built pyramids out of dirt so they could be closer to the sun o Begin to bury their dead in a hollowed out mound of dirty with all of their prized possessions Buried with food and things to trade in the next life Killed your family and closest friends so they could be buried with you o Cahokia is located where East St. Louis, Missouri is today o First came together about 800 A.D. and would last until 1500 A.D. o In its prime, Cahokia had about 30,000 people living in it o Drought forced Cahokia to break up into smaller tribes • Indian tribes in 1492 o Iroquois Bound together because they spoke the same language Live in 4-5 villages Villages were fortified by logs Women were farmers and tended to the crops so the men could go fight Very war-like society Fought over captives Went after women and small children Tied captives to a stake in the middle of the village while villagers took turns stabbing them with a knife...
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This note was uploaded on 11/07/2011 for the course AMH 2010 taught by Professor Johnr during the Fall '08 term at FSU.
- Fall '08